author = "Paugam, Ronan and Wooster, M. and Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro de and 
                         Martin, M. Val",
          affiliation = "{Kings Coll London} and {Kings Coll London} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of 
                title = "A review of approaches to estimate wildfire plume injection height 
                         within large-scale atmospheric chemical transport models",
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "16",
               number = "2",
                pages = "907--925",
             abstract = "Landscape fires produce smoke containing a very wide variety of 
                         chemical species, both gases and aerosols. For larger, more 
                         intense fires that produce the greatest amounts of emissions per 
                         unit time, the smoke tends initially to be transported vertically 
                         or semi-vertically close by the source region, driven by the 
                         intense heat and convective energy released by the burning 
                         vegetation. The column of hot smoke rapidly entrains cooler 
                         ambient air, forming a rising plume within which the fire 
                         emissions are transported. The characteristics of this plume, and 
                         in particular the height to which it rises before releasing the 
                         majority of the smoke burden into the wider atmosphere, are 
                         important in terms of how the fire emissions are ultimately 
                         transported, since for example winds at different altitudes may be 
                         quite different. This difference in atmospheric transport then may 
                         also affect the longevity, chemical conversion, and fate of the 
                         plumes chemical constituents, with for example very high plume 
                         injection heights being associated with extreme long-range 
                         atmospheric transport. Here we review how such landscape-scale 
                         fire smoke plume injection heights are represented in larger-scale 
                         atmospheric transport models aiming to represent the impacts of 
                         wildfire emissions on component of the Earth system. In particular 
                         we detail (i) satellite Earth observation data sets capable of 
                         being used to remotely assess wildfire plume height distributions 
                         and (ii) the driving characteristics of the causal fires. We also 
                         discuss both the physical mechanisms and dynamics taking place in 
                         fire plumes and investigate the efficiency and limitations of 
                         currently available injection height parameterizations. Finally, 
                         we conclude by suggesting some future parameterization 
                         developments and ideas on Earth observation data selection that 
                         may be relevant to the instigation of enhanced methodologies aimed 
                         at injection height representation.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-16-907-2016",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-907-2016",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Paugam_a review.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 jan. 2021"