author = "Bufacchi, Paulo and Krieger, Guenther C. and Mell, William and 
                         Alvarado, Ernesto and Santos, Jos{\'e} Carlos dos and Carvalho 
                         J{\'u}nior, Jo{\~a}o Andrade",
          affiliation = "{Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Universidade de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {US Forest Serv} and {University 
                         Washington} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)}",
                title = "Numerical simulation of surface forest fire in Brazilian Amazon",
              journal = "Fire Safety Journal",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "79",
                pages = "44--56",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "Surface fire, Numerical simulation, Turbulent combustion, 
                         Brazilian Amazon, Rate of spread.",
             abstract = "This paper investigates fire spread through surface fuels of the 
                         Brazilian Amazon by using a three-dimensional, fully transient, 
                         physics-based computer simulation approach. Computer simulations 
                         are obtained through the solution to governing equations of fluid 
                         dynamics, combustion, heat transfer and thermal degradation of the 
                         vegetative fuel. Surface fuel fires composed mostly of dead leaves 
                         and twigs were numerically simulated and the calculated rate of 
                         spread was compared to findings from field observations. The 
                         importance of air humidity, vegetation temperature, moisture 
                         content, surface to volume ratio and bulk density was evaluated 
                         through the variation of each one individually in numerical 
                         simulation runs. Conclusions show that in the range of parameter 
                         variation considered, the most important parameters are the 
                         vegetation moisture, surface area to volume ratio, and bulk 
                         density. The vegetation initial temperature and air humidity, in 
                         the range of variation studied, did not influence the fire rate of 
                         spread. The numerical simulations also showed that the radiation 
                         process is very important and directly affects the fire rate of 
                         spread. Convection is less important because of the absence of 
                         external wind. The model is able to capture the main effects of a 
                         surface forest fire typical of the Amazon, and can be used as a 
                         numerical tool for studying such fires.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.11.014",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.11.014",
                 issn = "0379-7112",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "bucacchi_numerical.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "18 jan. 2021"