author = "Navarrete, D. and Sitch, S. and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira 
                         e Cruz de and Pedroni, L. and Duque, A.",
          affiliation = "{University of Exeter} and {University of Exeter} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Carbon Decisions 
                         International} and {Universidad Nacional de Colombia}",
                title = "Conversion from forests to pastures in the Colombian Amazon leads 
                         to differences in dead wood dynamics depending on land management 
              journal = "Journal of Environmental Management",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "171",
                pages = "42--51",
                month = "Apr.",
             keywords = "Coarse woody debris, Colombian Amazon, Dead wood carbon pool, 
                         Forest-to-pasture conversion, Grazing intensity, REDD+.",
             abstract = "Dead wood, composed of coarse standing and fallen woody debris 
                         (CWD), is an important carbon (C) pool in tropical forests and its 
                         accounting is needed to reduce uncertainties within the strategies 
                         to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest 
                         degradation (REDD+). To date, information on CWD stocks in 
                         tropical forests is scarce and effects of land-cover conversion 
                         and land management practices on CWD dynamics remain largely 
                         unexplored. Here we present estimates on CWD stocks in primary 
                         forests in the Colombian Amazon and their dynamics along 20 years 
                         of forest-to-pasture conversion in two sub-regions with different 
                         management practices during pasture establishment: high-grazing 
                         intensity (HG) and low-grazing intensity (LG) sub-regions. Two 
                         20-year-old chronosequences describing the forest-to-pasture 
                         conversion were identified in both sub-regions. The line-intersect 
                         and the plot-based methods were used to estimate fallen and 
                         standing CWD stocks, respectively. Total necromass in primary 
                         forests was similar between both sub-regions (35.6  5.8 Mg ha-1 
                         in HG and 37.0  7.4 Mg ha-1 in LG). An increase of ~124% in CWD 
                         stocks followed by a reduction to values close to those at the 
                         intact forests were registered after slash-and-burn practice was 
                         implemented in both sub-regions during the first two years of 
                         forest-to-pasture conversion. Implementation of machinery after 
                         using fire in HG pastures led to a reduction of 82% in CWD stocks 
                         during the second and fifth years of pasture establishment, 
                         compared to a decrease of 41% during the same period in LG where 
                         mechanization is not implemented. Finally, average necromass 20 
                         years after forest-to-pasture conversion decreased to 3.5  1.4 Mg 
                         ha-1 in HG and 9.3  3.5 Mg ha-1 in LG, representing a total 
                         reduction of between 90% and 75% in each sub-region, respectively. 
                         These results highlight the importance of low-grazing intensity 
                         management practices during ranching activities in the Colombian 
                         Amazon to reduce C emissions associated with land-cover change 
                         from forest to pasture.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.01.037",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.01.037",
                 issn = "0301-4797",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Navarrete_conversion.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"