author = "Mariscal-Muñoz, Eduardo and Costa, Carlos A. S. and Tavares, 
                         Hewerson S. and Bianchi, Jonas and Hebling, Josmeri and Machado, 
                         Jo{\~a}o Paulo Barros and Lerner, Ulf H. and Souza, Pedro P. C.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista 
                         (UNESP)} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Instituto Nacional 
                         de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Umeå University} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)}",
                title = "Osteoblast differentiation is enhanced by a nano-to-micro hybrid 
                         titanium surface created by Yb:YAG laser irradiation",
              journal = "Clinical Oral Investigations",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "20",
               number = "3",
                pages = "503--511",
                month = "Apr.",
             keywords = "Bone, Laser, Osteoblast, Titanium implants.",
             abstract = "Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the capacity of a 
                         new modified laser surface to stimulate calvarial osteoblasts 
                         isolated from neonatal mouse bones to differentiate and form 
                         mineralized nodules. Methods: Titanium discs were subjectezd or 
                         not to laser irradiation according to specific parameters and 
                         characterized. Osteoblasts isolated from neonatal mouse calvaria 
                         were cultured over the discs, and the capacity of these cells to 
                         proliferate (MTT assay), form mineralized nodules (Alizarin red 
                         assay), and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPase 
                         activity) was analyzed. Real-time PCR was used for quantification 
                         of gene expression. Results: Laser-irradiated titanium discs (L) 
                         presented a rough nano-to-micrometric oxidized surface contrasting 
                         with the smooth pattern on polished discs (P). The Ra on the 
                         micrometric level increased from 0.32 ± 0.01 \μm on P 
                         surfaces to 10.57 ± 0.39 \μm on L surfaces. When compared 
                         with P, L promoted changes in osteoblast morphology, increased 
                         mineralized nodule formation in osteoblasts cultured on the 
                         surfaces for 14 days, and enhanced ALPase activity at days 7 and 
                         14. Transcription factors triggering osteoblast differentiation 
                         (Runx2 and Sp7) and genes encoding the bone extracellular matrix 
                         proteins collagen type-1 (Col1a1), osteopontin (Spp1), and 
                         osteocalcin (Bglap) were upregulated in cells on L surfaces 
                         compared with those on P surfaces at days 114. Conclusion: Laser 
                         treatment of titanium surfaces created a rough surface that 
                         stimulated osteoblast differentiation. Clinical relevance: Laser 
                         treatment of titanium generates a reproducible and efficient 
                         surface triggering osteoblast differentiation that can be of 
                         importance for osteointegration.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s00784-015-1533-1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-015-1533-1",
                 issn = "1432-6981",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "mariscal_osteoblast.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"