author = "Gomes, S{\'o}stenes Pereira and Lorena, Luiz Antonio Nogueira and 
                         Ribeiro, G. M.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal 
                         do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)}",
                title = "A constructive genetic algorithm for discrete dispersion on point 
                         feature cartographic label placement problems",
              journal = "Geographical Analysis",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "48",
               number = "1",
                pages = "43--58",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "cartography, genetic algorithm, linear programing.",
             abstract = "This article concerns the point feature cartographic label 
                         placement (PFCLP) problem, which is a NP-hard (Non-deterministic 
                         Polynomial-time hard) combinatorial problem. It is considered that 
                         when all points must be labeled and overlaps are inevitable, the 
                         map can be more readable if overlapping labels are placed in a 
                         dispersive way, that is, overlapping labels are distant from each 
                         other. This work presents a constructive genetic algorithm (CGA) 
                         for the discrete dispersion PFCLP that utilizes the notion of 
                         masking to preserve optimal subsequences in chromosomes. We also 
                         define the discrete dispersion PFCLP as a mixed integer linear 
                         programming model, considering the problem of the minimum number 
                         of labels in conflict as well. The computational results validate 
                         our CGA approach using instances up to 5,046 points.",
                  doi = "10.1111/gean.12082",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gean.12082",
                 issn = "0016-7363",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"