author = "Rajesh, P. K. and Liu, J. Y. and Balan, Nalan and Lin, C. H. and 
                         Sun, Y. Y. and Pulinets, A.",
          affiliation = "{National Cheng Kung University} and National Central University, 
                         Taoyuan and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {National Cheng Kung University} and National Central University, 
                         Taoyuan and {Russian Academy of Sciences}",
                title = "Morphology of midlatitude electron density enhancement using total 
                         electron content measurements",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research A: Space Physics",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "121",
               number = "2",
                pages = "1503--1517",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "Midlatitude ionosphere, electron density enhancement, MEDE.",
             abstract = "Using the global ionospheric map of total electron content in 
                         2002-2009, this paper investigates anomalous, midlatitude electron 
                         density enhancement (MEDE) bounded by a tropical electron density 
                         trough and the usual midlatitude electron density trough at all 
                         times (24h) of the day for the first time. The diurnal, seasonal, 
                         and longitudinal variations in the occurrence and strength of MEDE 
                         are studied at solar maximum (2002) and long deep solar minimum 
                         (2009), and latitude-longitude dependence is examined using the 
                         data in 2002-2009. The results show that the MEDE occurs at all 
                         times of the day though pronounced at night (2200-0400LT), and in 
                         some cases the daytime occurrence could be more frequent than the 
                         corresponding nighttime occurrence. The strength maximizes at 
                         around 0400LT and is weak during daytime. Both the occurrence and 
                         strength are, in general, predominant in winter at low solar 
                         activity and exhibit significant longitudinal dependence. The ExB 
                         drift, strength, and direction of neutral wind and 
                         ionosphere-plasmasphere plasma flow and their day-to-day 
                         variations are suggested to account for the existence of MEDE at 
                         all times of the day.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2015JA022251",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JA022251",
                 issn = "2169-9402",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"