author = "Abreu, Elizangela M{\'a}rcia de Carvalho and Dias, Lucas Pinto 
                         Salles and Lima, Fernanda Pupio Silva and Paula J{\'u}nior, 
                         Alderico Rodrigues de and Lima, Mario Oliveira",
          affiliation = "{Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade do Vale 
                         do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)}",
                title = "Cardiovascular autonomic control in paraplegic and quadriplegic",
              journal = "Clinical Autonomic Research",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "26",
               number = "2",
                pages = "117--126",
                month = "Apr.",
             keywords = "Spinal cord injury, Autonomic nervous system, Heart rate 
             abstract = "Spinal cord injury (SCI) is commonly associated with devastating 
                         paralysis. This condition also results in cardiovascular autonomic 
                         dysfunction associated with increased mortality from 
                         cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to explore 
                         the differences in cardiovascular autonomic modulation in 
                         individuals with and without SCI. The study included 60 
                         individuals: 30 individuals without SCI, who formed the control 
                         group-CG and 30 individuals with SCI, who formed the SCI 
                         group-SCIG. The latter group was divided into two, one group of 
                         subjects with SCI above the spinal segment T6-SCIG (above T6) and 
                         a group of individuals with SCI below T6-SCIG (below T6). The 
                         subjects were evaluated by linear and nonlinear analysis of heart 
                         rate variability (HRV). The SCIG showed significantly lower square 
                         root of the mean squares differences of successive NN intervals 
                         (rMSSD), number of pairs of adjacent NN intervals differing by 
                         more than 50 ms (pNN50), standard deviation of short-term HRV 
                         (SD1), and high frequency power (HF). Their low frequency power 
                         (LF) in absolute units (ms(2)) was significantly lower and their 
                         normalized units (n.u.) were significantly higher. Their LF/HF 
                         ratio was significantly higher, and sample entropy (SampEn), which 
                         indicates the complexity and irregularity of the NN intervals time 
                         series, was significantly lower compared to the CG. The 
                         differences between the SCIG and CG were derived mainly from the 
                         SCIG (above T6). The correlation test revealed very low values 
                         between each of the parameters evaluated for CG and SCIG. The SCIG 
                         (above T6) showed greater cardiovascular autonomic impairment 
                         compared to SCIG (below T6) and CG. The SCIG (below T6) also 
                         presented some degree of autonomic dysfunction. All parameters, 
                         linear or nonlinear, are suitable to demonstrate the differences 
                         between the SCIG and CG.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10286-015-0339-1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10286-015-0339-1",
                 issn = "0959-9851",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "abreu_cardiovascular.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"