author = "Carvalho Junior, J. A. and Amaral, S. S. and Costa, M. A. M. and 
                         Soares Neto, Turibio Gomes and Veras, C. A. G. and Costa, F. S. 
                         and van Leeuwen, T. T. and Krieger Filho, G. C. and Tourigny, 
                         Etienne and Forti, Maria Cristina and Fostier, Anne Helene and 
                         Siqueira, M. B. and Santos, Jos{\'e} Carlos dos and Lima, B. A. 
                         and Casc{\~a}o, P. and Ortega, G. and Frade Junior, E. F.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Universidade 
                         Estadual Paulista (UNESP)} and {Universidade Estadual Paulista 
                         (UNESP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Universidade de Bras{\'{\i}}lia (UnB)} and {Empresa 
                         Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria (EMBRAPA)} and {Vrije 
                         Universiteit Amsterdam} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)} and {Universidade de 
                         Bras{\'{\i}}lia (UnB)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal de S{\~a}o Carlos 
                         (UFSCar)} and {Universidade de Aveiro} and {Universidade Federal 
                         do Acre (UFAC)} and {Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC)}",
                title = "CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled 
                         experiments in Western Amazonia",
              journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "135",
                pages = "73--83",
                month = "June",
             keywords = "Amazonia forest fires, Biomass consumption, CO emission, CO2 
             abstract = "Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric 
                         emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the 
                         carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the 
                         atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is 
                         important for the development of measures for its control. The aim 
                         of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires 
                         in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of 
                         forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio 
                         Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of 
                         Rond{\^o}nia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western 
                         portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per 
                         hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods 
                         using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the 
                         central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was 
                         estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 
                          2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption 
                         rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion 
                         completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters 
                         larger than 10 cm) and the 2  2 m2 areas to determine the 
                         combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with 
                         characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall 
                         biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 
                         26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, 
                         respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in 
                         open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in 
                         volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the 
                         burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191  46.7 
                         t ha-1 and 13.5  3.3 t ha-1, respectively.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.03.043",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.03.043",
                 issn = "1352-2310",
             language = "pt",
           targetfile = "carvalho_co2.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"