author = "Freitas, Henrique Renn{\'o} de Azeredo and Freitas, Corina da 
                         Costa and Rosim, S{\'e}rgio and Oliveira, Jo{\~a}o Ricardo de 
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Drainage networks and watersheds delineation derived from 
                         TIN-based digital elevation models",
              journal = "Computers and Geosciences",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "92",
                pages = "21--37",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "Digital elevation models, Drainage networks, Flat areas, Pits, 
                         Triangulated irregular networks, Watersheds delineation.",
             abstract = "Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) efficiently define terrain 
                         models from which drainage networks and watersheds can be 
                         extracted with important applications in hydrology. In this work, 
                         the TIN model is represented by a constrained Delaunay 
                         triangulation obtained from contour lines and sampled points. 
                         Paths of steepest descent calculated from the TIN are connected by 
                         processing the triangles according to an associated priority, then 
                         forming a drainage graph structure proposed to generate drainage 
                         networks from accumulated flows. Major problems such as flat areas 
                         and pits that create inconsistencies in the terrain model and 
                         discontinuities in flows are removed with procedures that 
                         interpolate the elevation values of particular points on the TIN. 
                         Drainage networks are defined by arbitrary threshold values, and 
                         their associated watersheds and subwatersheds are then delineated. 
                         TIN results are qualitatively and quantitatively compared to an 
                         available reference drainage network, and also to regular grid 
                         results generated with the TerraHidro system. The drainage 
                         networks automatically obtained from the drainage graph highly 
                         agree to the main courses of water on the terrain, indicating that 
                         the TIN is an attractive alternative terrain model for 
                         hydrological purposes, and that the proposed drainage graph can be 
                         used for the automatic extraction of drainage networks that are 
                         consistent with real-world hydrological patterns.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.cageo.2016.04.003",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2016.04.003",
                 issn = "0098-3004",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "freitas_drainage.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 jan. 2021"