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@PhDThesis{Leal:2016:CoCiHi,
               author = "Leal, Karinne Reis Deusdar{\'a}",
                title = "Componentes do ciclo hidrol{\'o}gico e ciclagem de nutrientes na 
                         interface atmosfera-planta-solo no semi{\'a}rido brasileiro",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2016",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2016-05-20",
             keywords = "caatinga, precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o efetiva, nitrog{\^e}nio, 
                         deposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o atmosf{\'e}rica, transfer{\^e}ncia de 
                         nutrientes, effective rainfall, nitrogen, atmospheric deposition, 
                         nutrient transfer.",
             abstract = "Este estudo foi realizado para caracterizar e quantificar as 
                         transfer{\^e}ncias de {\'a}gua e de nutrientes, em 
                         solu{\c{c}}{\~a}o, entre os compartimentos atmosfera, planta e 
                         solo, em dois ambientes, um ambiente com vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         t{\'{\i}}pica de caatinga e outro com pastagem. Foi considerada 
                         tamb{\'e}m a influ{\^e}ncia das precipita{\c{c}}{\~o}es nestas 
                         transfer{\^e}ncias. Amostras de {\'a}gua foram coletadas para 
                         medir a precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, transprecipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         escoamento pelos troncos, escoamento superficial e 
                         percola{\c{c}}{\~a}o no solo, durante dois per{\'{\i}}odos 
                         chuvosos com diferentes quantidades de precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         sendo que em 2012 ocorreu uma seca intensa em toda a regi{\~a}o 
                         nordeste e, em 2013, as precipita{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram de acordo 
                         com a m{\'e}dia hist{\'o}rica. As amostras foram analisadas 
                         quanto aos principais {\'{\i}}ons inorg{\^a}nicos (H\$^{+}\$, 
                         Na\$^{+}\$, NH\$_{4}\$\$^{+}\$, K\$^{+}\$, Ca\$^{2+}\$, 
                         Mg\$^{2+}\$, Cl\$^{-}\$, NO\$_{3}\$\$^{-}\$, e 
                         SO\$_{4}\$\$^{2-}\$). Obteve-se que a 
                         intercepta{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi de 29\% e 22\%, a 
                         transprecipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi de 70\% e 76\%, e o escoamento 
                         pelos troncos foi de 1,0\% e 1,1\%, para os per{\'{\i}}odos 
                         chuvosos 2012 e 2013, respectivamente. O escoamento superficial 
                         foi menor que 1\% da precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o para ambos os 
                         per{\'{\i}}odos e ambientes de estudo e n{\~a}o foi observada 
                         diferen{\c{c}}a entre o escoamento da {\'a}rea com 
                         vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o de caatinga e da pastagem. A 
                         percola{\c{c}}{\~a}o atrav{\'e}s do solo na {\'a}rea com 
                         vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o de caatinga foi menor que na {\'a}rea da 
                         pastagem, apesar de ambas representarem menos de 5\% da 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o. O conte{\'u}do i{\^o}nico total da 
                         {\'a}gua de chuva sugere uma forte contribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         marinha. Na transprecipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o foi observado o 
                         empobrecimento para o Ca\$^{2+}\$, Mg\$^{2+}\$, 
                         SO\$_{4}\$\$^{2}\$- e H\$^{+}\$, enriquecimento para 
                         Na\$^{+}\$ e Cl\$^{-}\$. Para as esp{\'e}cies nitrogenadas 
                         n{\~a}o foram observadas diferen{\c{c}}as significativas em 
                         rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a} precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o (exceto 
                         NH\$_{4}\$\$^{+}\$ para 2012). Com rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o ao 
                         escoamento pelos troncos, foi observado o enriquecimento da 
                         maioria dos nutrientes em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a} 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, exceto para SO\$_{4}\$\$^{2}\$- e 
                         H\$^{+}\$. Apesar das altas concentra{\c{c}}{\~o}es no 
                         escoamento pelos troncos, sua deposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o mostrou-se 
                         baixa devido ao seu baixo fluxo. Neste sentido, {\'e} 
                         poss{\'{\i}}vel inferir que mudan{\c{c}}as no uso e 
                         ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o do solo podem alterar a produtividade do 
                         ecossistema ao perturbar os mecanismos de conserva{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         dos nutrientes pelo dossel. Os resultados s{\~a}o importantes 
                         para a compreens{\~a}o da parti{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o realizada pela vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         caatinga, bem como a influ{\^e}ncia deste tipo de cobertura nos 
                         componentes hidrol{\'o}gicos no solo e na ciclagem de nutrientes 
                         para esta regi{\~a}o pouco estudada. ABSTRACT: This study was 
                         conducted in order to characterize and quantify the water and 
                         nutrients transfers between the atmosphere, plant and soil 
                         compartments considering two environments, one covered with 
                         typical vegetation of Caatinga and another covered with pasture. 
                         It was also considered the influence of rainfall on these 
                         transfers. Water samples were collected to measure the 
                         precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, runoff and percolation, 
                         during two wet seasons, one during an extremely dry year (2012) 
                         and one during a year with normal rainfall (2013). Samples were 
                         analyzed in order to determine the main inorganic ions 
                         (H\$^{+}\$, Na\$^{+}\$, NH\$_{4}\$\$^{+}\$, K\$^{+}\$, 
                         Ca\$^{2+}\$, Mg\$^{2+}\$, Cl\$^{-}\$, 
                         NO\$_{3}\$\$^{-}\$, e SO\$_{4}\$\$^{2-}\$). According to 
                         the measurements, interception was 29\% and 22\%, throughfall 
                         was 70\% and 76\% and stemflow was 1,0\% and 1,1\% of the 
                         incident rainfall during the wet season of 2012 and 2013, 
                         respectively. Runoff was lower than 1\% of the incident rainfall 
                         for both periods and environments and no differences were observed 
                         between the pasture runoff and the caatinga covered environment 
                         runoff. Percolation was lower at the caatinga covered environment 
                         than the pasture environment, although both represented lower than 
                         5\% of the incident rainfall. The total ionic rainwater 
                         composition suggested a high marine contribution. In the 
                         throughfall it was observed the enrichment of Na\$^{+}\$ and 
                         Cl\$^{-}\$ and the depletion of Ca\$^{2+}\$, Mg\$^{2+}\$, 
                         SO\$_{4}\$\$^{2-}\$ and H\$^{+}\$ compared to rainfall. For 
                         nitrogenous species no significant differences were observed in 
                         throughfall compared to rainfall (except for 
                         NH\$_{4}\$\$^{+}\$ in 2012). For stemflow it was observed the 
                         enrichment of most nutrients compared to rainfall, except of 
                         SO\$_{4}\$\$^{2-}\$ and H+. Although it was observed high 
                         concentrations in the stemflow, deposition was low due to its low 
                         flow. In this sense, it is possible to infer that changes in land 
                         use and occupation can change the productivity of the ecosystem by 
                         disrupting the nutrient conservation mechanisms through the 
                         canopy. The results are important for the understanding of the 
                         precipitation partition by the caatinga canopy, and the influence 
                         of this coverage in the soil hydrological components and in the 
                         nutrient cycling for this poorly studied area.",
            committee = "Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud (presidente) and Borma, Laura de 
                         Simone (orientadora) and Forti, Maria Cristina (orientadora) and 
                         Menezes, R{\^o}mulo Sim{\~o}es Cezar and Fornaro, Adalgiza",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Components of the hydrological cycle and biogeochemical cycling in 
                         the atmosphere-plant-soil interface in brazilian semiarid",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "135",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3LPG2RP",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3LPG2RP",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"
}


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