author = "Martin, Scot T. and Artaxo, P. and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo 
                         and Manzi, Antonio Ocimar and Souza, R. A. F. and Schumacher, C. 
                         and Wang, J. and Andreae, M. O. and Barbosa, H. M. J. and Fan, J. 
                         and Fish, Gilberto and Goldstein, A. H. and Guenther, A. and 
                         Jimenez, J. L. and Poschl, U. and Silva Dias, M. 
                         Assun{\c{c}}{\~a}o and Smith, J. N. and Wendisch, M.",
          affiliation = "{Harvard University} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amaz{\^o}nia (INPA)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEAM)} and {Texas A and M 
                         University} and {Brookhaven National Laboratory} and {Max Planck 
                         Institute for Chemistry} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and {Instituto 
                         Aeron{\'a}utico e Espacial (IAE)} and {University of California} 
                         and {University of California} and {University of Colorado} and 
                         {Max Planck Institute for Chemistry} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o 
                         Paulo (USP)} and {University of California} and {University of 
                title = "Introduction: observations and modeling of the green ocean amazon 
              journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "16",
               number = "8",
                pages = "4785--4797",
                month = "Apr.",
             abstract = "The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 
                         (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of 
                         Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 
                         years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment 
                         focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric 
                         chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their 
                         connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. 
                         The objective was to understand and quantify these linked 
                         processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and 
                         second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this 
                         end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed 
                         on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served 
                         as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to 
                         the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and 
                         motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research 
                         sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each 
                         site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) 
                         upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to 
                         T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the 
                         pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude 
                         G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer 
                         and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) 
                         operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, 
                         two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place 
                         that included additional specialized research instrumentation at 
                         the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. 
                         GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 
                         2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 
                         August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew 
                         during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. 
                         In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond 
                         to the clean and biomass burning seasons, respectively. The Manaus 
                         plume is present year-round, and it is transported by prevailing 
                         northeasterly and easterly winds in the wet and dry seasons, 
                         respectively. This introduction also organizes information 
                         relevant to many papers in the special issue. Information is 
                         provided on the vehicle fleet, power plants, and industrial 
                         activities of Manaus. The mesoscale and synoptic meteorologies 
                         relevant to the two IOPs are presented. Regional and long-range 
                         transport of emissions during the two IOPs is discussed based on 
                         satellite observations across South America and Africa. Fire 
                         locations throughout the airshed are detailed. In conjunction with 
                         the context and motivation of GoAmazon2014/5 as presented in this 
                         introduction, research articles including thematic overview 
                         articles are anticipated in this special issue to describe the 
                         detailed results and findings of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment.",
                  doi = "10.5194/acp-16-4785-2016",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-4785-2016",
                 issn = "1680-7316 and 1680-7324",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "martins_introduction.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 nov. 2020"