author = "Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Detection of mine slope motions in Brazil as revealed by satellite 
                         radar interferograms",
              journal = "Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "75",
               number = "2",
                pages = "605--621",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "DInSAR technique, Northern Brazil, Numerical modeling, Open pit 
                         mine, Slope instability.",
             abstract = "Differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) is a 
                         space-geodetic technique which allows minute surface displacements 
                         over vast areas to be detected with centimetric accuracy. Because 
                         of these unique characteristics, the DInSAR approach has great 
                         advantages over classical geodetic monitoring systems that allow 
                         the anticipation of high-risk situations. In the past few decades, 
                         it has been successfully applied in many areas of the earth and 
                         environmental sciences. However, there have been very few 
                         applications of this approach to active open pit mines in tropical 
                         environments. In this work, the DInSAR technique was applied to 
                         detect and monitor unknown surface displacements that may be 
                         occurring in the N4W iron mine, northern Brazil. X-band data 
                         acquired from March 2012 to April 2013 during the TerraSAR-X 
                         satellite mission were utilized for this purpose. The results were 
                         checked in the field and compared to optical leveling data. Due to 
                         the consistent deformation pattern observed over a mine waste 
                         pile, Pile W, we also performed numerical modeling in order to 
                         carry out a preliminary assessment of its theoretical deformation 
                         behavior. The results show that most of the study area can be 
                         considered to be stable. The numerical modeling indicated that 
                         horizontal displacements may be occurring, and that the DInSAR 
                         technique can be used to provide an initial rapid assessment of a 
                         large-scale deformation field, which could prove to be very 
                         useful, particularly in large active mining areas.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10064-015-0832-8",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10064-015-0832-8",
                 issn = "1435-9529",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "hartwig_detection.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"