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@PhDThesis{Pinto:2016:UnEvIn,
               author = "Pinto, Cibele Teixeira",
                title = "Uncertainty evaluation for in flight radiometric calibration of 
                         earth observation sensors",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2016",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2016-07-07",
             keywords = "radiometric calibration, uncertainties, reflectance-based 
                         approach, cross-calibration, orbital sensor, 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o radiom{\'e}trica, incertezas, 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o cruzada, sensor orbital.",
             abstract = "The absolute radiometric calibration is a prerequisite for 
                         creating high-quality science data, and consequently, higher-level 
                         Earth observation sensors products. The radiometric calibration 
                         uncertainty is the key that describes the reliability of 
                         calibration results. The main objective of this present work was 
                         to develop a method to evaluate the uncertainties inherent in the 
                         in-flight absolute radiometric calibration of Earth observation 
                         sensors. The methodology developed and tested confirms the 
                         hypothesis that the method proposed here is compatible and 
                         comparable with other methods practiced by the international 
                         science community of satellite radiometric calibration. The 
                         uncertainties were determined for two methods of absolute 
                         radiometric calibration: reflectance based approach and 
                         cross-calibration method. The reflectance-based approach was 
                         performed using four different reference surfaces: (a) west part 
                         of the Bahia State, Brazil; (b) Atacama Desert, Chile; (c) 
                         Algodones Dunes, USA; and (d) South Dakota State University (SDSU) 
                         site, USA. Regarding the reflectance-based approach, the main 
                         sources of uncertainty are: (a) the instruments used for the 
                         reference surface characterization; (b) atmosphere 
                         characterization parameters; (c) surface reflectance factor; and 
                         (d) radiative transfer code (MODTRAN). The spectroradiometer 
                         instrumental uncertainties in laboratory were lower than 1\%. The 
                         reference panel relative uncertainties were less than 0.25\%. The 
                         columnar water vapor was derived from the spectral band of the 
                         solar photometer centered on 940 nm with an uncertainty lower than 
                         5\%. The aerosol optical depth relative uncertainties ranged from 
                         2 12\% in Brazil, 1 5\% in Chile, 1-11\% in Algodones Dunes and 
                         less than 1.2\% in SDSU site. The most important information 
                         related to the reflectance based method is the retrieved surface 
                         reflectance factor at the time of sensor overpass the site 
                         measured in field. The relative uncertainty of the Algodones Dunes 
                         and Atacama Desert reflectance factor was lower than 5\%; and the 
                         relative uncertainty of Brazil and SDSU reflectance factor ranged 
                         from 3\% to 10\%. The second major source of uncertainty was the 
                         accuracy of MODTRAN (2\%). The final uncertainty of the TOA 
                         radiance predicted by MODTRAN in Brazil and in SDSU site was lower 
                         than 10\%. The final uncertainty of the TOA radiance predicted by 
                         MODTRAN in Atacama Desert and in Algodones Dunes site was lower 
                         than 5.5\%. These values are the overall total uncertainty of the 
                         reflectance based method in the spectral range of 350 to 2400 nm. 
                         The cross calibration between both MUX and WFI on-board CBERS 4 
                         and the OLI on board Landsat-8 was performed using the Libya-4 and 
                         Atacama Desert sites. During the cross calibration it is necessary 
                         to correct the intrinsic offsets between two sensors caused by 
                         Spectral Response Function (SRF) mismatches using a spectral band 
                         adjustment factor (SBAF). Thus, one of the sources of uncertainty 
                         in the cross calibration is the SBAF, which depend on the 
                         uncertainty of the target spectral profile and the SRF uncertainty 
                         of the two sensors. Here, the SBAF was estimated with an 
                         uncertainty lower than 2\%. The overall total uncertainty 
                         achieved here with cross calibration method using the Libya-4 and 
                         Atacama Desert sites was less than 6.5\%. The dominant source of 
                         uncertainty in cross calibration is the uncertainty associated 
                         with the sensor selected as reference. The OLI produces data 
                         calibrated to an uncertainty of less than 5\% in terms of 
                         radiance. Brazil now has a quantitative indication of the quality 
                         of the absolute calibration final results. In addition, the 
                         country now has autonomy and reliability in the data provided by 
                         sensors of national Earth observation program. RESUMO: A 
                         capacidade de detectar e quantificar as mudan{\c{c}}as na 
                         superf{\'{\i}}cie terrestre utilizando dados de sensoriamento 
                         remoto depende de sensores de observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da Terra que 
                         forne{\c{c}}am medi{\c{c}}{\~o}es precisas e consistentes ao 
                         longo do tempo. Uma etapa essencial para garantir esta qualidade e 
                         consist{\^e}ncia nos dados {\'e} a realiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o radiom{\'e}trica absoluta, cuja 
                         confiabilidade {\'e} quantificada por meio do c{\'a}lculo das 
                         incertezas envolvidas no processo. O objetivo principal deste 
                         trabalho {\'e} apresentar um m{\'e}todo para avaliar as 
                         incertezas inerentes {\`a}s miss{\~o}es de 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o radiom{\'e}trica absoluta de sensores de 
                         observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da Terra ap{\'o}s seu lan{\c{c}}amento. A 
                         metodologia desenvolvida e testada confirma a hip{\'o}tese de que 
                         o m{\'e}todo proposto {\'e} compat{\'{\i}}vel e 
                         compar{\'a}vel com outros m{\'e}todos praticados pela comunidade 
                         cient{\'{\i}}fica internacional de calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         radiom{\'e}trica de sensores abordo de sat{\'e}lite. As 
                         incertezas foram determinadas para dois m{\'e}todos de 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o radiom{\'e}trica absoluta: 
                         reflectance-based e calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o cruzada. O m{\'e}todo 
                         reflectance-based foi realizado em quatro superf{\'{\i}}cies de 
                         refer{\^e}ncia distintas: (a) oeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil; 
                         (b) Deserto do Atacama, Chile; (c) Algodones Dunes, EUA; e (d) 
                         South Dakota State University (SDSU), EUA. As principais fontes de 
                         incerteza relacionadas ao m{\'e}todo reflectance based s{\~a}o: 
                         (a) os instrumentos utilizados para a caracteriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         da superf{\'{\i}}cie de refer{\^e}ncia; (b) os par{\^a}metros 
                         de caracteriza{\c{c}}{\~a}o da atmosfera; (c) o fator de 
                         reflect{\^a}ncia da superf{\'{\i}}cie; e (d) o modelo de 
                         transfer{\^e}ncia radiativa (MODTRAN). As incertezas 
                         instrumentais relacionadas ao espectrorradi{\^o}metro foram 
                         menores que 1\%. As incertezas da placa de refer{\^e}ncia foram 
                         menores que 0,25\%. O conte{\'u}do de vapor d{\'a}gua foi 
                         derivado da banda espectral do fot{\^o}metro solar centralizada 
                         em 940 nm com uma incerteza menor que 5\%. A incerteza relativa 
                         da profundidade {\'o}ptica do aerossol variou entre 2 e 12\% no 
                         Brasil, 1 a 5\% no Chile, 1 a 11\% em Algodones Dunes e foi 
                         menor que 1,2 \% na SDSU. A informa{\c{c}}{\~a}o de maior 
                         import{\^a}ncia do m{\'e}todo reflectance-based {\'e} o fator 
                         de reflect{\^a}ncia da superf{\'{\i}}cie medido no momento em 
                         que o sensor sobrevoou a superf{\'{\i}}cie em campo. A incerteza 
                         relativa do fator de reflect{\^a}ncia de Algodones Dunes e do 
                         Deserto do Atacama foi menor que 5\% enquanto do Brasil e na SDSU 
                         variou entre 3 e 10\%. A segunda maior fonte de incerteza se 
                         referiu {\`a} precis{\~a}o do MODTRAN (2\%). A incerteza final 
                         da radi{\^a}ncia no topo da atmosfera estimada pelo MODTRAN no 
                         Brasil e na SDSU foi menor que 10\%. A incerteza final da 
                         radi{\^a}ncia no topo da atmosfera estimada pelo MODTRAN no 
                         Deserto do Atacama e em Algodones Dunes foi menor que 5,5\%. 
                         Esses valores correspondem {\`a} incerteza total global do 
                         m{\'e}todo reflectance based para a regi{\~a}o espectral entre 
                         350 e 2400 nm. A calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o cruzada dos sensores MUX e 
                         WFI a bordo do CBERS-4 com o sensor OLI a bordo do Landsat-8 foi 
                         realizada utilizando duas {\'a}reas distintas: Libya-4 e o 
                         Deserto do Atacama. Durante o processo de calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         cruzada {\'e} necess{\'a}rio corrigir as diferen{\c{c}}as das 
                         fun{\c{c}}{\~o}es de resposta espectral (SRF) dos dois sensores 
                         envolvidos. Essa corre{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\'e} realizada mediante 
                         aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o do fator de ajuste de banda espectral 
                         (SBAF). Assim, uma das fontes de incertezas no processo de 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o cruzada {\'e} o pr{\'o}prio SBAF, no qual 
                         depende da incerteza do perfil espectral do alvo e da incerteza da 
                         SRF dos dois sensores (sensor de refer{\^e}ncia e sensor a ser 
                         calibrado). Neste trabalho, o SBAF foi estimado com uma incerteza 
                         menor que 2\%. A incerteza total global no m{\'e}todo de 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o cruzada utilizando o Deserto do Atacama e a 
                         L{\'{\i}}bya-4 foi menor que 6,5\%. A fonte de incerteza 
                         dominante na calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o cruzada {\'e} a incerteza 
                         associada ao sensor selecionado como refer{\^e}ncia. O sensor OLI 
                         produz dados calibrados de radi{\^a}ncia com uma incerteza menor 
                         que 5\%. O Brasil agora possui uma indica{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         quantitativa da qualidade do resultado final da 
                         calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o radiom{\'e}trica absoluta. Al{\'e}m 
                         disso, o pa{\'{\i}}s tamb{\'e}m passa a possuir autonomia e 
                         confiabilidade nos dados disponibilizados por sensores do programa 
                         nacional de observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da Terra, como por exemplo, o 
                         CBERS 4.",
            committee = "Ponzoni, Fl{\'a}vio Jorge (presidente/orientador) and Castro, Ruy 
                         Morgado de (orientador) and Lorenzzetti, Jo{\~a}o Antonio and 
                         Moraes, Elisabete Carla and Vanin, Vito Roberto and Moreira, 
                         Romero da Costa",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o da incerteza na calibra{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         radiom{\'e}trica de sensores de observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da terra",
             language = "en",
                pages = "161",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3M2724B",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3M2724B",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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