author = "Gan, Manoel Alonso and Dal Piva, Everson",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)}",
                title = "Energetics of southeastern Pacific cut\‑off lows",
              journal = "Climate Dynamics",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "46",
               number = "11/12",
                pages = "3453--3462",
                month = "June",
             keywords = "Ageostrophic flux convergence, Baroclinic conversion, Barotropic 
                         conversion, Cut-off low, Energetics.",
             abstract = "The existence of cut-off lows (COLs) over South Pacific and South 
                         America is often associated with adverse weather events such as 
                         intense precipitation over the central region of South America, 
                         frost episodes in southern Brazil and the development of Andes lee 
                         cyclones and intense cyclones over the southern coast of Brazil. 
                         Despite this importance, the formation and maintenance mechanisms 
                         of the COLs are not well understood. To detail the significant 
                         variability in terms of the eddy kinetic energy equation for fifty 
                         cases of COLs that formed over the southeastern Pacific Ocean is 
                         the aim of this study. Only the cases of COLs that formed over the 
                         ocean and remained there during most of their life were chosen. 
                         The main terms of the equation [ageostrophic flux convergence 
                         (AFC), baroclinic conversion (BRC) and barotropic conversion 
                         (BRT)] were calculated using the 6-hourly gridded data from the 
                         National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy 
                         reanalysis. The formation mechanism of the COLs was associated 
                         with BRC and AFC. During the midlife period, the BRC term 
                         converted eddy kinetic energy to eddy potential energy and the AFC 
                         had a positive contribution until 6 h after the midlife point. In 
                         the dissipation phase, the BRC term remained positive and AFC 
                         became negative. The BRT extracted kinetic energy from the COL 
                         during the entire life cycle. The AFC term was the most important 
                         in all phases of the cut-off lifetime, and it was the responsible 
                         for extending the cut-off lifetime while the others terms were 
                  doi = "10.1007/s00382-015-2779-7",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2779-7",
                 issn = "0930-7575",
                label = "self-archiving-INPE-MCTI-GOV-BR",
             language = "pt",
           targetfile = "gan_energetics.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"