author = "Rodrigues, Bruno V. M. and Leite, Nelly C. S. and Cavalcanti, 
                         Bruno das Neves and Silva, Newton S. da and Marciano, Fernanda R. 
                         and Corat, Evaldo Jos{\'e} and Webster, Thomas J. and Lobo, 
                         Anderson O.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {University of Michigan} and {Universidade do Vale do 
                         Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Universidade do Vale do 
                         Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Northeastern University} and {Universidade 
                         do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)}",
                title = "Graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes as nanofeatured 
                         scaffolds for the assisted deposition of nanohydroxyapatite: 
                         characterization and biological evaluation",
              journal = "International Journal of Nanomedicine",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "11",
                pages = "2569--2585",
                month = "June 13",
             keywords = "Bactericidal effect, Bioactivity, Bone cells, Graphene oxide, In 
                         vitro, Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Nanohydroxyapatite, Tissue 
             abstract = "Nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) is an emergent bioceramic that shows 
                         similar chemical and crystallographic properties as the mineral 
                         phase present in bone. However, nHAp presents low fracture 
                         toughness and tensile strength, limiting its application in bone 
                         tissue engineering. Conversely, multi-walled carbon nanotubes 
                         (MWCNTs) have been widely used for composite applications due to 
                         their excellent mechanical and physicochemical properties, 
                         although their hydrophobicity usually impairs some applications. 
                         To improve MWCNT wettability, oxygen plasma etching has been 
                         applied to promote MWCNT exfoliation and oxidation and to produce 
                         graphene oxide (GO) at the end of the tips. Here, we prepared a 
                         series of nHAp/MWCNT-GO nanocomposites aimed at producing 
                         materials that combine similar bone characteristics (nHAp) with 
                         high mechanical strength (MWCNT-GO). After MWCNT production and 
                         functionalization to produce MWCNT-GO, ultrasonic irradiation was 
                         employed to precipitate nHAp onto the MWCNT-GO scaffolds (at 13 
                         wt%). We employed various techniques to characterize the 
                         nanocomposites, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 
                         Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and gas adsorption (the 
                         BrunauerEmmettTeller method). We used simulated body fluid to 
                         evaluate their bioactivity and human osteoblasts (bone-forming 
                         cells) to evaluate cytocompatibility. We also investigated their 
                         bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia 
                         coli. TEM analysis revealed homogeneous distributions of nHAp 
                         crystal grains along the MWCNT-GO surfaces. All nanocomposites 
                         were proved to be bioactive, since carbonated nHAp was found after 
                         21 days in simulated body fluid. All nanocomposites showed 
                         potential for biomedical applications with no cytotoxicity toward 
                         osteoblasts and impressively demonstrated a bactericidal effect 
                         without the use of antibiotics. All of the aforementioned 
                         properties make these materials very attractive for bone tissue 
                         engineering applications, either as a matrix or as a reinforcement 
                         material for numerous polymeric nanocomposites.",
                  doi = "10.2147/IJN.S106339",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S106339",
                 issn = "1176-9114",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "rodrigues_graphene.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 jan. 2021"