author = "Brondizio, Eduardo S. and Vogt, Nathan David and Mansur, Andressa 
                         V. and Anthony, Edward J. and Costa, Sandra and Hetrick, Scott",
          affiliation = "{Indiana University Bloomington} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Indiana University Bloomington} 
                         and {Universit{\'e} Aix-Marseille} and {Universidade do Vale do 
                         Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Indiana University Bloomington}",
                title = "A conceptual framework for analyzing deltas as coupled 
                         social–ecological systems: an example from the Amazon River 
              journal = "Sustainability Science",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "11",
               number = "4",
                pages = "591--609",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "Amazon, Deltas, Governance, Social–ecological systems, 
                         Sustainability, Telecoupling.",
             abstract = "At the nexus of watersheds, land, coastal areas, oceans, and human 
                         settlements, river delta regions pose specific challenges to 
                         environmental governance and sustainability. Using the Amazon 
                         Estuary-Delta region (AD) as our focus, we reflect on the 
                         challenges created by the high degree of functional 
                         interdependencies shaping socialecological dynamics of delta 
                         regions. The article introduces the initial design of a conceptual 
                         framework to analyze delta regions as coupled socialecological 
                         systems (SES). The first part of the framework is used to define a 
                         delta SES according to a problem and/or collective action dilemma. 
                         Five components can be used to define a delta SES: socialeconomic 
                         systems, governance systems, ecosystems-resource systems, 
                         topographic-hydrological systems, and oceanic-climate systems. 
                         These components are used in association with six types of 
                         telecoupling conditions: socio-demographic, economic, governance, 
                         ecological, material, and climatic-hydrological. The second part 
                         of the framework presents a strategy for the analysis of 
                         collective action problems in delta regions, from sub-delta/local 
                         to delta to basin levels. This framework is intended to support 
                         both case studies and comparative analysis. The article provides 
                         illustrative applications of the framework to the AD. First, we 
                         apply the framework to define and characterize the AD as coupled 
                         SES. We then utilize the framework to diagnose an example of 
                         collective action problem related to the impacts of urban growth, 
                         and urban and industrial pollution on small-scale fishing 
                         resources. We argue that the functional interdependencies 
                         characteristic of delta regions require new approaches to 
                         understand, diagnose, and evaluate the current and future impacts 
                         of socialecological changes and potential solutions to the 
                         sustainability dilemmas of delta regions.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s11625-016-0368-2",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11625-016-0368-2",
                 issn = "1862-4065",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "brondizio_conceptual.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"