author = "Mansur, Andressa V. and Brond{\'{\i}}zio, Eduardo S. and Roy, 
                         Samapriya and Hetrick, Scott and Vogt, Nathan David and Newton, 
          affiliation = "{Universidad de C{\'a}diz} and {Indiana University} and {Indiana 
                         University} and {Indiana University} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of Algarve}",
                title = "An assessment of urban vulnerability in the Amazon Delta and 
                         Estuary: a multi-criterion index of flood exposure, socio-economic 
                         conditions and infrastructure",
              journal = "Sustainability Science",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "11",
               number = "4",
                pages = "625--643",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "Amazon, Delta, Estuary, Flooding, Households, Index, Indicators, 
                         Sanitation, Socio-economic, Unplanned settlements, Urban density, 
                         Urban sectors, Vulnerability.",
             abstract = "The Amazon Delta and Estuary (ADE) is a region of continental and 
                         global ecological importance. Controversy, many of the basic 
                         infrastructure and services essential for quality of life and 
                         sustainable development of this delta are absent. Using a 
                         conceptual model to define socio-economic vulnerability in the 
                         urban ADE, a thorough assessment of indicators including 
                         sanitation services, housing conditions, household income, 
                         population, flood risk and unplanned settlements was conducted in 
                         41 cities at the census sector scale (n = 2938). A multi criterion 
                         index was applied to classify urban vulnerability from three 
                         dimensions: flood exposure, socio-economic sensitivity and 
                         infrastructure. This is the first study to examine urban 
                         vulnerability within and between urban areas of the ADE. Results 
                         indicated that most of the urban sectors of the ADE are exposed to 
                         potential risks due to a combination of flood hazards, poverty and 
                         basic structural deficiencies such as insufficient drinking water 
                         or inadequate waste water collection, with several sectors being 
                         afflicted by similar problems. The assessment of vulnerability 
                         indicates that 6090 % of the urban population live in conditions 
                         of moderate to high degree of vulnerability. The ADE cities 
                         presented a pattern where vulnerability increases from city center 
                         to their newly developed urban areas. Inadequate planning coupled 
                         with rapid urbanization has contributed to the development of 
                         unplanned settlements in almost half of the urban sectors of the 
                         ADE. Combined, these factors contribute to widespread 
                         socio-economic vulnerability along the urban spaces of the ADE, 
                         increasing exposure to health risks and more frequent seasonal and 
                         stochastic events such as storm surges and high flooding levels.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s11625-016-0355-7",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11625-016-0355-7",
                 issn = "1862-4065",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "mansur_assessment.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"