author = "Williams, Earle R. and Mattos, Enrique Vieira and Machado, Luiz 
                         Augusto Toledo",
          affiliation = "{Massachusetts Institute of Technology} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Stroke multiplicity and horizontal scale of negative charge 
                         regions in thunderclouds",
              journal = "Geophysical Research Letters",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "43",
               number = "10",
                pages = "5460--5466",
                month = "May",
             abstract = "An X-band polarimetric radar and multiple lightning detection 
                         systems are used to document the initial cloud-to-ground lightning 
                         flash in a large number (46 cases) of incipient thunderstorms, as 
                         part of the CHUVA-Vale field campaign during the 2011/2012 
                         spring-summer in southeast Brazil. The results show an 
                         exceptionally low stroke multiplicity (87% of flashes with single 
                         stroke) in the initial ground flashes, a finding consistent with 
                         the limited space available for the positive leader extension into 
                         new regions of negative space charge in compact cells. The results 
                         here are contrasted with the behavior of ground flashes in 
                         mesoscale thunderstorms in previous studies. Additionally, we 
                         found evidence for a minimum scale (radar echo >20\ dBZ) 
                         for lightning initiation (>3\ km in radius) and that the 
                         peak currents of initial cloud-to-ground flashes in these compact 
                         thunderstorms are only half as large as return stroke peak 
                         currents in general.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016GL068924",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068924",
                 issn = "0094-8276",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "williams_stroke.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"