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@PhDThesis{Oliveira:2016:FlRa┴g,
               author = "Oliveira, Gabriel de",
                title = "Fluxos de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, {\'a}gua e carbono em 
                         ecossistemas terrestres na Amaz{\^o}nia oriental com base em 
                         dados MODIS",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2016",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2016-07-22",
             keywords = "sensoriamento remoto, balan{\c{c}}o de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         efici{\^e}ncia de uso da {\'a}gua, MODIS, Amaz{\^o}nia, remote 
                         sensing, net radiation, water-use efficiency, Amazonia.",
             abstract = "O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi obter estimativas dos 
                         componentes do balan{\c{c}}o de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o (Rn), 
                         evapotranspira{\c{c}}{\~a}o (ET), produtividade prim{\'a}ria 
                         bruta (GPP), e efici{\^e}ncia de uso da {\'a}gua (WUE) em escala 
                         regional, abrangendo sete bacias na por{\c{c}}{\~a}o leste da 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia, entre 2001 e 2013, a partir da 
                         utiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de dados do sensor MODIS. Os objetivos 
                         espec{\'{\i}}ficos inclu{\'{\i}}ram: i) desenvolver uma 
                         abordagem para estimativa do Rn e seus componentes sob diversas 
                         condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es do c{\'e}u na regi{\~a}o amaz{\^o}nica 
                         utilizando apenas dados de sensoriamento remoto (MODIS) e 
                         rean{\'a}lise (GLDAS), atrav{\'e}s da adapta{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         modelo SEBAL; ii) calcular a WUE a partir de dados de ET e GPP 
                         provenientes dos algoritmos MOD16 e MOD17, respectivamente; iii) 
                         analisar a din{\^a}mica espacial e temporal dos fluxos de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, {\'a}gua e carbono na {\'a}rea de estudo; 
                         iv) avaliar a magnitude e variabilidade temporal dos fluxos de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, {\'a}gua e carbono em diferentes tipos de 
                         uso e cobertura da terra verificados na regi{\~a}o; e v) avaliar 
                         os impactos de mudan{\c{c}}as de uso e cobertura da terra nos 
                         fluxos de energia e carbono. A compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o das 
                         estimativas obtidas pelo m{\'e}todo proposto para 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos fluxos radiativos com 
                         observa{\c{c}}{\~o}es de torres do LBA mostrou erros m{\'e}dios 
                         de \$\sim\$14 e 13\% para o Rn instant{\^a}neo e di{\'a}rio, 
                         respectivamente. Os produtos MOD16 (ET) e MOD17 (GPP) apresentaram 
                         erros, em m{\'e}dia, de \$\sim\$14 e 30\%, enquanto as 
                         estimativas de WUE tiveram um erro m{\'e}dio de \$\sim\$32\%. 
                         A variabilidade espacial do Rn, ET, GPP, e WUE esteve associada 
                         principalmente ao gradiente de uso e cobertura da terra ao longo 
                         da regi{\~a}o. Os maiores valores dessas vari{\'a}veis foram 
                         observados na por{\c{c}}{\~a}o centro-norte (sul do estado do 
                         Par{\'a}), ao passo que os menores foram verificados na 
                         por{\c{c}}{\~a}o centro-sul (norte do estado do Mato Grosso). 
                         Isso esteve relacionado ao fato de que o setor centro-norte, mesmo 
                         apresentando {\'a}reas com forte ocorr{\^e}ncia de desmatamento, 
                         possui maiores {\'a}reas de floresta (prim{\'a}ria ou 
                         secund{\'a}ria) em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o ao setor centro-sul. 
                         Temporalmente, o Rn, ET, GPP, e WUE na {\'a}rea de estudo 
                         mostraram um padr{\~a}o sazonal bem pronunciado, variando com as 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~o}es {\'u}mida (janeiro a junho) e seca (julho a 
                         dezembro) na regi{\~a}o. Os ecossistemas de floresta tropical 
                         prim{\'a}ria (FP), vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o secund{\'a}ria (VS) e 
                         cerrado (CE) apresentaram menores valores de temperatura do ar e 
                         da superf{\'{\i}}cie, albedo, radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o infravermelha 
                         termal incidente (L\$\downarrow\$) e emitida 
                         (L\$\uparrow\$), e maiores valores de Rn, GPP, ET, e WUE em 
                         rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a} soja (SO) e pastagem (PA). O 
                         comportamento temporal dos fluxos de radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         {\'a}gua e carbono nos diferentes ecossistemas terrestres esteve 
                         diretamente associado com a sazonalidade clim{\'a}tica da 
                         regi{\~a}o, ou seja, {\`a}s caracter{\'{\i}}sticas 
                         intr{\'{\i}}nsecas aos per{\'{\i}}odos chuvoso e seco. Tais 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}sticas influenciaram no comportamento dos 
                         par{\^a}metros biof{\'{\i}}sicos da vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o e, 
                         consequentemente, nos fluxos de superf{\'{\i}}cie. Constatou-se 
                         que a convers{\~a}o de FP para SO possui um maior impacto no 
                         clima regional da por{\c{c}}{\~a}o leste da Amaz{\^o}nia na 
                         compara{\c{c}}{\~a}o com a altera{\c{c}}{\~a}o de FP para PA. 
                         Ainda, foi verificado que, de um modo geral, em ambas as 
                         situa{\c{c}}{\~o}es (FP para PA e FP para SO) os maiores 
                         impactos nas magnitudes dos valores ocorrem durante a 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca. Em suma, a utiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         dados do sensor MODIS em conjunto com rean{\'a}lises foi adequada 
                         no sentido de quantificar e mapear de maneira consistente a 
                         distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial dos fluxos de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, {\'a}gua e carbono na por{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         oriental da Amaz{\^o}nia durante um per{\'{\i}}odo de 13 anos. 
                         Esse conjunto de dados possibilitou a aquisi{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 
                         informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es tanto sob o contexto regional quanto sob 
                         ecossistemas terrestres espec{\'{\i}}ficos existentes nesse 
                         setor da regi{\~a}o amaz{\^o}nica. Tais informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         s{\~a}o extremamente importantes no sentido de melhor compreender 
                         o acoplamento entre os ciclos hidrol{\'o}gicos e de carbono na 
                         Amaz{\^o}nia, bem como proporcionar um conhecimento mais 
                         aprofundado da variabilidade clim{\'a}tica nesse ambiente em base 
                         regional. ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate the components of 
                         net radiation (Rn), evapotranspiration (ET), gross primary 
                         productivity (GPP), and water-use efficiency on a regional scale, 
                         encompassing seven basins in the eastern part of Amazonia, between 
                         2001 and 2013, through the utilization of MODIS sensor data. The 
                         specific aims included: i) to develop an approach to estimate Rn 
                         and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region 
                         through the SEBAL model utilizing only remote sensing (MODIS) and 
                         reanalysis data (GLDAS); ii) to calculate WUE by the use of ET and 
                         GPP data obtained through MOD16 and MOD17 products, respectively; 
                         iii) to analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics of the fluxes of 
                         radiation, water and carbon over the study area; iv) to evaluate 
                         the magnitude and temporal variability of the fluxes of radiation, 
                         water and carbon in different land use and land cover types 
                         observed in the region; and v) to evaluate the impacts caused by 
                         land use and land cover changes on the energy and carbon fluxes. 
                         Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method to 
                         retrieve the radiative fluxes and observations from the LBA towers 
                         showed average errors of \$\sim\$14 and 13\% for instantaneous 
                         and daily Rn, respectively. The MOD16 and MOD17 products presented 
                         errors, on average, of \$\sim\$14 and 30\%, respectively, 
                         whilst WUE estimates showed an average error of \$\sim\$32\%. 
                         The spatial variability of Rn, ET, GPP, and WUE were primarily 
                         related to the gradient of land use and land cover along the 
                         region. The highest values were observed in the central-north 
                         portion (south of Par{\'a} state), whilst the lowest values were 
                         observed in the central-south portion (north of Mato Grosso 
                         state). It was related to the fact that the central-north part, 
                         even with areas of high occurrence of deforestation, has larger 
                         areas of forest (primary or secondary) than the central-south 
                         part. Temporally, Rn, ET, GPP, and WUE have shown a strongly 
                         seasonal pattern, varying according with wet (January to June) and 
                         dry (July to December) seasons in the region. The ecosystems of 
                         primary tropical forest (FP), secondary succession (VS) and 
                         cerrado (CE) had lower air and surface temperatures, albedo, 
                         thermal infrared incoming (L\$\downarrow\$) and outgoing 
                         (L\$\uparrow\$) radiation, and higher Rn, GPP, ET, and WUE 
                         compared to soybean (SO) and pasture (PA). The temporal behavior 
                         of the fluxes of radiation, water and carbon under the different 
                         terrestrial ecosystems was directly associated with the climatic 
                         seasonality of the region, that is, to the intrinsic 
                         characteristics of the rainy and dry seasons. These 
                         characteristics affected the behavior of biophysical parameters of 
                         vegetation and hence the surface fluxes. It was observed that the 
                         conversion from FP to SO has a greater impact on regional climate 
                         of the eastern portion of Amazon compared to the change from FP to 
                         PA. In addition, it was found that, in general, in both situations 
                         (FP to PA and FP to SO) the major impact on magnitude of the 
                         values occurs during the dry season. In summary, the use of MODIS 
                         data combined with reanalysis products was adequate to quantify 
                         and consistently map the spatial distribution of the fluxes of 
                         radiation, water and carbon in the eastern portion of Amazonia 
                         over a period of 13 years. This dataset allowed the acquisition of 
                         information both in the regional context and under different types 
                         of terrestrial ecosystems existent in this part of the Amazon. 
                         Such information are extremely important in order to better 
                         understand the coupling between the hydrologic and carbon cycles 
                         in Amazonia, as well as to provide a deeper knowledge of climate 
                         variability in this environment on a regional basis.",
            committee = "Moraes, Elisabete Caria (presidente/orientadora) and Brunsell, 
                         Nathaniel Alan (orientador) and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira 
                         e Cruz de and Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir and Oliveira, Gilvan 
                         Sampaio de and Victoria, Daniel de Castro and Zeri, Luiz Marcelo 
                         Mattos",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Fluxes of radiation, water and carbon over terrestrial ecosystems 
                         in eastern Amazon based on MODIS data",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "178",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3M4EGMP",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3M4EGMP",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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