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@InProceedings{Balan:2016:ReDeUn,
               author = "Balan, Nalan",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Recent developments in the understanding of the mechanisms of EIA 
                         under quiet and active conditions",
                 year = "2016",
         organization = "Annual Meeting Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, 13. (AOGS)",
             abstract = "The equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), the largest ionospheric 
                         feature that covers over half the global area in 24 hours, was 
                         discovered by Namba and Maida in 1939 and Appleton in 1946. It has 
                         an ionization trough around the equator, crests at ~15 magnetic 
                         latitudes and a crest-to-trough ratio of approximately 1.6 during 
                         quiet daytime. Though several mechanisms were suggested, the 
                         equatorial plasma fountain mechanism involving the upward ExB 
                         drift due to eastward electric field and downward field aligned 
                         plasma diffusion due to gravity and plasma pressure gradient 
                         forces was found to be able to model and explain the EIA [Moffett 
                         and Hanson, 1965]. However, the easy-to-understand 
                         misinterpretations of the involved physics of the plasma fountain 
                         and formation of EIA created misunderstandings in the literature, 
                         which has lead to wrong explanations for the strong EIA observed 
                         during major daytime space weather events. In this talk we review 
                         the recent understanding of the mechanisms of the plasma fountain 
                         and formation of EIA and try to clear the misunderstandings 
                         through basic principles, observations and modeling under both 
                         quiet and active conditions.",
  conference-location = "Beijing",
      conference-year = "31 July - 05 Aug.",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"
}


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