author = "Chiappim, William and Testoni, Georgio Ernesto and Doria, A. C. O. 
                         C. and Pessoa, R. S. and Fraga, Mariana Amorim and Galv{\~a}o, N. 
                         K. A. M. and Grigorov, K. G. and Vieira, L. and Maciel, H. S.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and 
                         {Universidade do Vale do Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Tecnol{\'o}gico de Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and {Space Research 
                         and Technology Institute} and {Universidade do Vale do 
                         Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)} and {Universidade do Vale do 
                         Para{\'{\i}}ba (UNIVAP)}",
                title = "Relationships among growth mechanism, structure and morphology of 
                         PEALD TiO2 films: the influence of O2 plasma power, precursor 
                         chemistry and plasma exposure mode",
              journal = "Nanotechnology",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "27",
               number = "30",
                pages = "305701",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "Brazilian MRS, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, titanium 
                         dioxide, x-ray diffraction, morphology, RBS.",
             abstract = "Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films have generated considerable 
                         interest over recent years, because they are functional materials 
                         suitable for a wide range of applications. The efficient use of 
                         the outstanding functional properties of these films relies 
                         strongly on their basic characteristics, such as structure and 
                         morphology, which are affected by deposition parameters. Here, we 
                         report on the influence of plasma power and precursor chemistry on 
                         the growth kinetics, structure and morphology of TiO2 thin films 
                         grown on Si(100) by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition 
                         (PEALD). For this, remote capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz oxygen 
                         plasma was used to act as a co-reactant during the ALD process 
                         using two different metal precursors: titanium tetrachloride 
                         (TiCl4) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). Furthermore, we 
                         investigate the effect of direct plasma exposure during the 
                         co-reactant pulse on the aforementioned material properties. The 
                         extensive characterization of TiO2 films using Rutherford 
                         backscattering spectroscopy, ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction 
                         (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic 
                         force microscopy (AFM) have revealed how the investigated process 
                         parameters affect their growth per cycle (GPC), crystallization 
                         and morphology. The GPC tends to increase with plasma power for 
                         both precursors, however, for the TTIP precursor, it starts 
                         decreasing when the plasma power is greater than 100 W. From XRD 
                         analysis, we found a good correlation between film crystallinity 
                         and GPC behavior, mainly for the TTIP process. The AFM images 
                         indicated the formation of films with grain size higher than film 
                         thickness (grain size/film thickness ratio approximate to 20) for 
                         both precursors, and plasma power analysis allows us to infer that 
                         this phenomenon can be directly related to the increase of the 
                         flux of energetic oxygen species on the substrate/growing film 
                         surface. Finally, the effect of direct plasma exposure on film 
                         structure and morphology was evidenced showing that the grid 
                         removal causes a drastic reduction in the grain size, particularly 
                         for TiO2 synthesized using TiCl4.",
                  doi = "10.1088/0957-4484/27/30/305701",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/30/305701",
                 issn = "0957-4484",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "chiappim_relationships.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "30 nov. 2020"