author = "Barlow, J. and Lennox, G. D. and Ferreira, J. and Berenguer, E. 
                         and Lees, A. C. and Nally, R. M. and Thomson, J. R. and Ferraz, S. 
                         F. D. B. and Louzada, J. and Oliveira, V. H. F. and Parry, L. and 
                         Solar, R. Ribeiro de Cartro and Vieira, I. C. G. and Arag{\~a}o, 
                         Luiz Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de and Begotti, R. A. and Braga, R. 
                         F. and Cardoso, T. M. and J{\'u}nior, R. C. D. O. and Souza 
                         Junior, C. M. and Moura, N. G. and Nunes, S. S. and Siqueira, J. 
                         V. and Pardini, R. and Silveira, J. M. and Vaz-De-Mello, F. Z. and 
                         Veiga, R. C. S. and Venturieri, A. and Gardner, T. A.",
          affiliation = "{Lancaster University} and {Lancaster University} and {Empresa 
                         Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria (EMBRAPA)} and {Lancaster 
                         University} and {Museu Paraense Em{\'{\i}}lio Goeldi} and 
                         {University of Canberra} and {University of Canberra} and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Lancaster University} 
                         and {Lancaster University} and {Lancaster University} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Vi{\c{c}}osa (UFV)} and {Museu Paraense 
                         Em{\'{\i}}lio Goeldi} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)} and {Empresa Brasileira de 
                         Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria (EMBRAPA)} and {Empresa Brasileira de 
                         Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria (EMBRAPA)} and IMAZON and {Museu 
                         Paraense Em{\'{\i}}lio Goeldi} and IMAZON and IMAZON and 
                         {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Lancaster University} 
                         and {Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT)} and {Instituto 
                         Socio Ambiental Serra Do Mar (ISASM)} and {Empresa Brasileira de 
                         Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria (EMBRAPA)} and {Stockholm Environment 
                title = "Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double 
                         biodiversity loss from deforestation",
              journal = "Nature",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "535",
               number = "7610",
                pages = "144--147",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "Aves, Coleoptera.",
             abstract = "Concerted political attention has focused on reducing 
                         deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most 
                         biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest 
                         cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are 
                         rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances 
                         occur both within forests, including selective logging and 
                         wildfires, and at the landscape level, through edge, area and 
                         isolation effects. Until now, the combined effect of anthropogenic 
                         disturbance on the conservation value of remnant primary forests 
                         has remained unknown, making it impossible to assess the relative 
                         importance of forest disturbance and forest loss. Here we address 
                         these knowledge gaps using a large data set of plants, birds and 
                         dung beetles (1,538, 460 and 156 species, respectively) sampled in 
                         36 catchments in the Brazilian state of Par{\'a}. Catchments 
                         retaining more than 69-80% forest cover lost more conservation 
                         value from disturbance than from forest loss. For example, a 20% 
                         loss of primary forest, the maximum level of deforestation allowed 
                         on Amazonian properties under Brazil's Forest Code, resulted in a 
                         39-54% loss of conservation value: 96-171% more than expected 
                         without considering disturbance effects. We extrapolated the 
                         disturbance-mediated loss of conservation value throughout 
                         Par{\'a}, which covers 25% of the Brazilian Amazon. Although 
                         disturbed forests retained considerable conservation value 
                         compared with deforested areas, the toll of disturbance outside 
                         Par{\'a}'s strictly protected areas is equivalent to the loss of 
                         92,000-139,000 km2 of primary forest. Even this lowest estimate is 
                         greater than the area deforested across the entire Brazilian 
                         Amazon between 2006 and 2015 (ref. 10). Species distribution 
                         models showed that both landscape and within-forest disturbances 
                         contributed to biodiversity loss, with the greatest negative 
                         effects on species of high conservation and functional value. 
                         These results demonstrate an urgent need for policy interventions 
                         that go beyond the maintenance of forest cover to safeguard the 
                         hyper-diversity of tropical forest ecosystems.",
                  doi = "10.1038/nature18326",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature18326",
                 issn = "0028-0836",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "barlow_anthropogenic.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 nov. 2020"