author = "Scovronick, N. and Fran{\c{c}}a, Daniela and Alonso, Marcelo and 
                         Almeida, Cl{\'a}udia Maria de and Freitas, Karla Maria Longo de 
                         and Freitas, Saulo Ribeiro de and Rudorff, B. and Wilkinson, P.",
          affiliation = "Woodrow Wilson School and Climate Futures Initiative, Princeton 
                         University, Princeton, NJ, United States and {Universidade Federal 
                         do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Universidade Federal de Pelotas 
                         (UFPEL)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Agrosat{\'e}lite Geotecnologia Aplicada Ltda} and {London School 
                         of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine}",
                title = "Air quality and health impacts of future ethanol production and 
                         use in S{\~a}o Paulo State, Brazil",
              journal = "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public 
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "13",
               number = "7",
                pages = "695",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "Air quality, Biofuel, Cardiovascular, Emissions, Ethanol, Health, 
                         Pollution, Transport.",
             abstract = "It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil 
                         fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the 
                         evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazils high uptake of 
                         ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate 
                         case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. 
                         Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of 
                         two future fuel scenarios in S{\~a}o Paulo State: a 
                         business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use 
                         proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual 
                         scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future 
                         transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The 
                         population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) 
                         and ozone was 3.0 g/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 
                         in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the 
                         business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both 
                         pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population 
                         living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if 
                         sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and 
                         continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, 
                         increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air 
                         pollution-related population health burdens when compared to 
                         policy that prioritizes gasoline.",
                  doi = "10.3390/ijerph13070695",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070695",
                 issn = "1661-7827 and 1660-4601",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "scovronick_air.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 jan. 2021"