author = "Saba, Marcelo Magalh{\~a}es Fares and Schumann, Carina and 
                         Warner, T. A. and Ferro, M. A. S. and Paiva, Amanda Rom{\~a}o de 
                         and Helsdon Junior, J. and Orville, R. E.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {ZT Research} and 
                         {Instituto de Aeron{\'a}utica e Espa{\c{c}}o (IAE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {South 
                         Dakota School of Mines and Technology} and {Texas A\&M 
                title = "Upward lightning flashes characteristics from high-speed videos",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "121",
               number = "14",
                pages = "8493--8505",
                month = "July",
             keywords = "characteristics, flash, high-speed video, thundercloud, tower, 
                         upward lightning.",
             abstract = "One hundred high-speed video recordings (72 cases in Brazil and 28 
                         cases in USA) of negative upward lightning flashes were analyzed. 
                         All upward flashes were triggered by another discharge, most of 
                         them positive CG flashes. A negative leader passing over the 
                         tower(s) was frequently seen in the high-speed video recordings 
                         before the initiation of the upward leader. One triggering 
                         component can sometimes initiate upward leader in several towers. 
                         Characteristics of leader branching, ICC pulses, recoil leader 
                         incidence, and interpulse interval are presented in this work. A 
                         comparison of the results is done for data obtained in Brazil and 
                         USA. The duration of ICC and the total flash duration are on 
                         average longer in Brazil than in USA. Only one fourth of all 
                         upward leaders are followed by any return strokes both in Brazil 
                         and USA, and the average number of return strokes following each 
                         upward leader is very low. The presence and duration of CC 
                         following return strokes in Brazil is more than two times larger 
                         than in USA. Several parameters of upward flashes were compared 
                         with similar ones from cloud-to-ground flashes.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016JD025137",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025137",
                 issn = "2169-8996 and 2169-897X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "2016 JGR Upward lightning flashes characteristics.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "15 jan. 2021"