author = "Burleyson, Casey D. and Feng, Zhe and Hagos, Samson M. and Fast, 
                         Jerome and Machado, Luiz Augusto Toledo and Martin, Scot T.",
          affiliation = "{Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and {Pacific Northwest 
                         National Laboratory} and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} 
                         and {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Harvard University}",
                title = "Spatial variability of the background diurnal cycle of deep 
                         convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 field campaign sites",
              journal = "Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "55",
                pages = "1579--1598",
             abstract = "The isolation of the Amazon rain forest makes it challenging to 
                         observe precipitation forming there, but it also creates a natural 
                         laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and 
                         precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Observations 
                         were collected upwind and downwind of Manaus, Brazil, during the 
                         Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 20142015 
                         experiment (GoAmazon2014/5). Besides aircraft, most of the 
                         observations were point measurements made in a spatially 
                         heterogeneous environment, making it hard to distinguish 
                         anthropogenic signals from naturally occurring spatial 
                         variability. In this study, 15 years of satellite data are used to 
                         examine the spatial and temporal variability of deep convection 
                         around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites using cold cloud tops (infrared 
                         brightness temperatures colder than 240 K) as a proxy for deep 
                         convection. During the rainy season, convection associated with 
                         the inland propagation of the previous days sea-breeze front is in 
                         phase with the diurnal cycle of deep convection near Manaus but is 
                         out of phase a few hundred kilometers to the east and west. 
                         Convergence between the river breezes and the easterly trade winds 
                         generates afternoon convection up to 10% more frequently (on 
                         average ;4mmday21 more intense rainfall) at the GoAmazon2014/5 
                         sites east of the Negro River (T0e, T0t/k, and T1) relative to the 
                         T3 site, which was located west of the river. In general, the 
                         annual and diurnal cycles of precipitation during 2014 were 
                         similar to climatological values that are based on satellite data 
                         from 2000 to 2013.",
                  doi = "10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0229.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0229.1",
                 issn = "1558-8432 and 1558-8424",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "Burleyson_spatial.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"