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@MastersThesis{Camphora:2017:PrMeIn,
               author = "Camphora, Vanessa Priscila",
                title = "{\'{\I}}ndice de antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o da v{\'a}rzea 
                         Amaz{\^o}nica: uma proposta metodol{\'o}gica de 
                         integra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de dados censit{\'a}rios e de 
                         sensoriamento remoto",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2017",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2016-08-29",
             keywords = "antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o, v{\'a}rzea Amaz{\^o}nica, an{\'a}lise 
                         multicrit{\'e}rio, dados de sensoriamento remoto, dados 
                         censit{\'a}rios, anthropization, Amazon floodplain, 
                         multi-criteria analysis, remote sensing data, census data.",
             abstract = "A v{\'a}rzea amaz{\^o}nica {\'e} um ecossistema sazonalmente 
                         inundado pelos rios de origem andina, moldando um cen{\'a}rio de 
                         constante transi{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre ambientes terrestres, 
                         {\'u}midos e aqu{\'a}ticos. A varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o deste 
                         padr{\~a}o estrutural n{\~a}o {\'e} apenas decorrente de 
                         fatores naturais, mas tamb{\'e}m de atividades antr{\'o}picas, 
                         resultantes do hist{\'o}rico intenso de ocupa{\c{c}}{\~a}o e 
                         extra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de recursos naturais. Atualmente, a 
                         v{\'a}rzea {\'e} um dos ecossistemas mais vulner{\'a}veis da 
                         regi{\~a}o amaz{\^o}nica brasileira, sujeita a diferentes 
                         n{\'{\i}}veis de press{\~o}es antr{\'o}picas di{\'a}rias cuja 
                         quantifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o em larga escala ainda {\'e} 
                         desconhecida. Neste contexto, o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi propor 
                         um {\'{\i}}ndice do potencial de antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o que 
                         permitisse quantificar o grau de impacto humano na v{\'a}rzea 
                         amaz{\^o}nica a partir da integra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de produtos de 
                         sensoriamento e de dados censit{\'a}rios. As vari{\'a}veis 
                         indicadoras da antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o selecionadas foram: o 
                         desflorestamento acumulado entre 1975 e 2014; o n{\'u}mero de 
                         focos de calor como proxy da ocorr{\^e}ncia de queimadas na 
                         v{\'a}rzea entre 2003 a 2014; o n{\'u}mero de 
                         domic{\'{\i}}lios rurais segundo o censo de 2010; o n{\'u}mero 
                         de cabe{\c{c}}as do rebanho bovino e bubalino dos 
                         munic{\'{\i}}pios da v{\'a}rzea em 2014. Para tanto, foi 
                         selecionada uma por{\c{c}}{\~a}o de v{\'a}rzea do Baixo 
                         Amazonas compreendida entre Parintins (AM) e Almeirim (PA). Para a 
                         compatibiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial e a integra{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         das informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es em uma an{\'a}lise conjunta, foram 
                         adotadas quadr{\'{\i}}culas de 5x5 kmē como unidade de 
                         an{\'a}lise e representa{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial de cada 
                         vari{\'a}vel, aqui denominadas de indicadores antr{\'o}picos. O 
                         m{\'e}todo de an{\'a}lise multicrit{\'e}rio foi utilizado para 
                         combina{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos indicadores, a partir do uso da 
                         t{\'e}cnica Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP. A AHP preconiza a 
                         participa{\c{c}}{\~a}o de especialistas com conhecimento sobre 
                         as caracter{\'{\i}}sticas naturais e antr{\'o}picas da 
                         {\'a}rea de estudo para determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         import{\^a}ncia relativa dos indicadores e a 
                         defini{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos pesos equivalentes, utilizados na 
                         combina{\c{c}}{\~a}o alg{\'e}brica dos indicadores para gerar 
                         um mapa s{\'{\i}}ntese, classificat{\'o}rio com o grau de 
                         antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o em cada quadr{\'{\i}}cula. O mapa 
                         apresentou a ocorr{\^e}ncia de ambientes mais impactados na 
                         por{\c{c}}{\~a}o central (entre os munic{\'{\i}}pios de Juruti 
                         e {\'O}bidos, Curu{\'a} e Santar{\'e}m) e leste (entre os 
                         munic{\'{\i}}pios de Monte Alegre e Prainha) da {\'a}rea 
                         estudada. A an{\'a}lise dos indicadores que comp{\~o}em o 
                         {\'{\i}}ndice de antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o permitiu identificar 
                         os fatores que mais influenciam na distribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         espacial da antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o na {\'a}rea de estudo. Os 
                         indicadores antr{\'o}picos de desflorestamento e de focos de 
                         calor foram considerados com elevado potencial de 
                         degrada{\c{c}}{\~a}o do ambiente e influenciaram a 
                         identifica{\c{c}}{\~a}o de locais com maior intensidade de 
                         antropismo. O {\'{\i}}ndice proposto permitiu identificar um 
                         gradiente de antropiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o que varia de leste a oeste 
                         na v{\'a}zea do Baixo Amazonas e que as {\'a}reas mais 
                         antropizadas, corroboram com informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es da literatura 
                         sobre a ocorr{\^e}ncia de maiores altera{\c{c}}{\~o}es na 
                         paisagem nesses locais, datadas desde o per{\'{\i}}odo 
                         pr{\'e}-colonial. Assim, esta metodologia pode auxiliar na 
                         avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o de a{\c{c}}{\~o}es mais imediatas de 
                         conserva{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos recursos naturais e 
                         preserva{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos servi{\c{c}}os ecossist{\^e}micos de 
                         v{\'a}rzea por tomadores de decis{\~a}o, adequadas para cada 
                         regi{\~a}o da v{\'a}rzea amaz{\^o}nica. ABSTRACT: The Amazon 
                         floodplain is an ecosystem seasonally flooded by Andean rivers 
                         picturing a scenario of constant transition between terrestrial, 
                         wetland and aquatic environments. This variation in v{\'a}rzea 
                         pattern is related to both, natural factors and human activities, 
                         resulting from an intensive history of exploitation of natural 
                         resources. Currently the floodplain is one of the most vulnerable 
                         ecosystems in the Brazilian Amazon, subject to different levels of 
                         daily human pressures. The quantification in a large scale of this 
                         pressure is still unknown. The aim of this research was to propose 
                         an potential anthropization index which could help to quantify the 
                         degree of human impact on the Amazon floodplain by integrating 
                         remote sensing and census data. The following variables were 
                         selected to indicate anthropization: cumulative deforestation 
                         between 1975 and 2014; number of active fires as proxy of burning 
                         occurrence on the floodplain between 2003-2014; number of rural 
                         households according to the 2010 census; number of heads of cattle 
                         and buffalos population in the municipalities of the floodplain in 
                         2014. The v{\'a}rzea reach of the Lower Amazon located between 
                         Parintins (AM) and Almeirim (PA) was selected to carry out the 
                         study. To make sure that such information could be spatially 
                         integrated and made compatible for joint analysis, cells with 5x5 
                         kmē were adopted as the unit of analysis and spatial 
                         representation of each variable, here called the anthropic 
                         indicators. A multi-criteria analysis, Analytic Hierarchy Process 
                         - AHP, was used to combine the indicators into an index. This 
                         technique determines the relative importance of the indicators and 
                         the definition of equivalent weights based on of the knowledge of 
                         experts on the natural and anthropogenic characteristics of the 
                         study area. This information is then used in algebraic combination 
                         of the indicators, to generate a synthesis and a classification 
                         map that quantifies the degree of anthropization in each cell. The 
                         resulting map showed that the Central region, between the 
                         municipalities of Juruti and Obidos, Curu{\'a} and Santar{\'e}m, 
                         and the Eastern region, between the municipalities of Monte Alegre 
                         and Prainha, were subjected to the highest degree of 
                         anthropization. The analysis of the indicators allowed identifying 
                         the most influential factors contributing to the anthropization 
                         and the spatial distribution of human disturbance in study area. 
                         The anthropic indicators of deforestation and active fires were 
                         considered with high potential for environmental degradation by 
                         the experts and strongly influenced the identification of highly 
                         impacted areas. The index identified a decreasing human 
                         disturbance ranging from east to west in the Lower Amazon 
                         v{\'a}zea. The most disturbed areas, corroborated with the 
                         literature about the occurrence of major changes in the landscape. 
                         Thus, this approach can support the evaluation of immediate 
                         actions of natural conservation resources and preservation of 
                         floodplain ecosystem services by decision makers, appropriate for 
                         each region of the Amazon floodplain.",
            committee = "Novo, Evlyn M{\'a}rcia Le{\~a}o de Moraes 
                         (presidente/orientador) and Lima, Andr{\'e} de (orientador) and 
                         Escada, Maria Isabel Sobral and Morelli, Fabiano and Queiroz, 
                         Helder Lima de and Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Anthropization index of AMAZON floodplain: proposal integration 
                         methodology of remote sensing and census data",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "148",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3MFHAAE",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3MFHAAE",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"
}


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