author = "Mura, Jos{\'e} Cl{\'a}udio and Paradella, Waldir Renato and 
                         Gama, F{\'a}bio Furlan and Silva, Guilherme Greg{\'o}rio",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Monitoring of surface movement in a large area of the open pit 
                         iron mines (Caraj{\'a}s, Brazil) based on a-DInSAR techniques 
                         using TerraSAR-X data",
                 year = "2016",
         organization = "SPIE Remote Sensing",
             abstract = "This work presents an investigation of ground deformation 
                         measurements based on a combination of DInSAR TimeSeries (DTS) and 
                         PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) techniques, applied in a 
                         large area of the open pit iron mines located in Caraj{\'a}s 
                         Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon Region). These mines have 
                         presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring 
                         measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been 
                         carried out based on ground based radar and total station 
                         (prisms). PSI processing technique involves the temporal phase 
                         unwrapping process, which is a very important stage to determine 
                         ground movement accurately. Limitations in this process can be 
                         found especially for detection of high movement rates. By using a 
                         priori information regarding the topographic phase error and phase 
                         displacement model, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI 
                         processing can be performed more efficiently. In this study we 
                         used a combination of DTS and PSI techniques aim at detecting high 
                         rate of linear and non linear ground movement. The DTS results 
                         provided the first estimate of the topographic error and the phase 
                         displacement model for the PSI analysis using the IPTA technique 
                         (Gamma RS software). A set of 33 TerraSAR-X-1 images, acquired 
                         during the period from March 2012 to April 2013 (dry and wet 
                         seasons), was used to perform this investigation in the 
                         Caraj{\'a}s mining area. Due to complex topography of the site 
                         (deep excavations, high waste piles, etc.), a high resolution DEM 
                         was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair in order to decrease 
                         the topography phase error in the analysis. The DTS analysis was 
                         carried out on a stack of multi-look unwrapped interferogram using 
                         an extension of the SVD to obtain the Least-Square solution. A set 
                         of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration of the 
                         surface was used to control the smoothness of the time-series 
                         solutions aiming to correct the atmospheric phase artifacts and 
                         estimate the height errors based on the normal baseline diversity. 
                         The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DInSAR 
                         timeseries approach were subtracted from the stack of original 
                         interferogram to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved 
                         the capability of the PSI analysis to detect non linear 
                         deformation as well as increased the numbers of point density of 
                         the final results. The results of the individual and combined 
                         techniques are presented and highlighted. A High deformation rates 
                         were detected over the waste piles (deformation rate up to -526.5 
                         mm/year), which is normally expected for this manmade structure. 
                         Non linear deformation was also detected along benches and ramps 
                         (deformation rate up to -255.7 mm/ year), which is associated with 
                         surface movement evidences (fractures on bench walls, cracks on 
                         bench surfaces and road ramps), which is associated with deep 
                         excavation on low quality geomechanical ore/rock masses. 
                         Structural control given by trending shear zone and trending fault 
                         system could also be associated with these movements. The proposed 
                         methodology showed good results for monitoring surface 
                         displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain 
                         forest environment, providing very useful information about the 
                         ground movement planning and risks assessment.",
  conference-location = "Edinburgh, United Kingdom",
      conference-year = "26-29 Sept.",
        urlaccessdate = "03 dez. 2020"