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@Article{HajraTsuEchGonGje:2016:MaStSo,
               author = "Hajra, Rakjumar and Tsurutani, Bruce T. and Echer, Ezequiel and 
                         Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Dem{\'e}trio and Gjerloev, Jesper W.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Jet 
                         Propulsion Laboratory} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics 
                         Laboratory}",
                title = "Supersubstorms (SML <-2500nT): magnetic storm and solar cycle 
                         dependences",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research A: Space Physics",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "121",
               number = "8",
                pages = "7805--7816",
                month = "Aug.",
             abstract = "We study extremely intense substorms with SuperMAG AL (SML) peak 
                         intensities < -2500 nT ({"}supersubstorms{"}/SSSs) for the period 
                         from 1981 to 2012. The SSS events were often found to be isolated 
                         SML peaks and not statistical fluctuations of the indices. The 
                         SSSs occur during all phases of the solar cycle with the highest 
                         occurrence (3.8 year(-1)) in the descending phase. The SSSs 
                         exhibited an annual variation with equinoctial maximum altering 
                         between spring in solar cycle 22 and fall in solar cycle 23. The 
                         occurrence rate and strength of the SSSs did not show any strong 
                         relationship with the intensity of the associated geomagnetic 
                         storms. All SSS events were associated with strong southward 
                         interplanetary magnetic field B-s component. The B-s fields were 
                         part of interplanetary magnetic clouds in 46% and of 
                         interplanetary sheath fields in 54% of the cases. About 77% of the 
                         SSSs were associated with small regions of very high density solar 
                         wind plasma parcels or pressure pulses impinging upon the 
                         magnetosphere. Comments on how SSS events may cause power outages 
                         at Earth are discussed at the end of the paper.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2015JA021835",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021835",
                 issn = "2169-9402",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "hajra-subt.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "05 dez. 2020"
}


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