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@Article{WarnerSabSchHelOrv:2016:ObBiLi,
               author = "Warner, Tom A. and Saba, Marcelo Magalh{\~a}es Fares and 
                         Schumann, Carina and Helsdon Junior, John H. and Orville, Richard 
                         E.",
          affiliation = "{South Dakota School of Mines and Technology} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {South Dakota School of Mines and 
                         Technology} and {Texas A\&M University}",
                title = "Observations of bidirectional lightning leader initiation and 
                         development near positive leader channels",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "121",
               number = "15",
                pages = "9251--9260",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "lightning, initiation, bipolar, bidirectional, leader, 
                         branching.",
             abstract = "Based on the analysis of high-speed optical and electric field 
                         change data, we present three observed cases in which a naturally 
                         occurring bidirectional lightning leader initiated and developed 
                         in virgin air near a previous established positive leader channel. 
                         Twice a new leader formed near an upward propagating positive 
                         leader that had initiated from a tower during an upward flash and 
                         once a new leader formed near a downward propagating positive 
                         leader prior to a positive cloud-to-ground return stroke. There 
                         were clear and consistent behavioral differences between the 
                         positive and negative leader ends of the newly formed 
                         bidirectional leader, and the positive end grew more slowly than 
                         the negative end in each case. In all three cases, the negative 
                         end of the bipolar leader connected with the previously formed 
                         positive leader channel creating a new positive leader branch. 
                         These rare observations show the bidirectional nature of naturally 
                         occurring lightning and suggest that positive leaders can gain 
                         branches by connection with newly formed bipolar leaders.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016JD025365",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025365",
                 issn = "2169-8996 and 2169-897X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "warner_observations.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "30 nov. 2020"
}


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