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@Article{Aaron-MorrisonAAAAAAAAAAAAAAABBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBC:2016:StCl20,
               author = "Aaron-Morrison, A. P. and Ackerman, S. A. and Adams, N. G. and 
                         Adler, R. F. and Albanil, A. and Alfaro, E. J. and Allan, R. and 
                         Alves, Lincoln Muniz and Amador, J. A. and Andreassen, L. M. and 
                         Arendt, A. and Ar{\'e}valo, J. and Arndt, D. S. and Arzhanova, N. 
                         M. and Aschan, M. M. and Azorin-Molina, C. and Banzon, V. and 
                         Bardin, M. U. and Barichivich, J. and Baringer, M. O. and 
                         Barreira, S. and Baxter, S. and Bazo, J. and Becker, A. and Bedka, 
                         K. M. and Behrenfeld, M. J. and Bell, G. D. and Belmont, M. and 
                         Benedetti, A. and Bernhard, G. and Berrisford, P. and Berry, D. I. 
                         and Bettolli, M. L. and Bhatt, U. S. and Bidegain, M. and Bill, B. 
                         D. and Billheimer, S. and Bissolli, P. and Blake, E. S. and 
                         Blunden, J. and Bosilovich, M. G. and Boucher, O. and Boudet, D. 
                         and Box, J. E. and Boyer, T. and Braathen, G. O. and Bromwich, D. 
                         H. and Brown, R. and Bulygina, O. N. and Burgess, D. and 
                         Calder{\'o}n, B.",
          affiliation = "{} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "State of the climate in 2015",
              journal = "Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "97",
               number = "8",
                pages = "S1--S275",
                month = "Aug.",
             keywords = "Agriculture, Atmospheric temperature, Carbon dioxide, Carbon 
                         monoxide, Digital storage, Drought, Earth atmosphere, Fisheries, 
                         Greenhouse gases, Groundwater, Hurricanes, Nickel, Nitrogen 
                         oxides, Oceanography, Ozone, Ozone layer, Precipitation 
                         (meteorology), Rain, Sea ice, Sea level, Snow, Soil moisture, 
                         Storms, Submarine geophysics, Surface measurement, Surface 
                         properties, Surface waters, Tropics, Water conservation.",
             abstract = "In 2015, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earths 
                         atmospherecarbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxideall continued 
                         to reach new high levels. At Mauna Loa, Hawaii, the annual CO2 
                         concentration increased by a record 3.1 ppm, exceeding 400 ppm for 
                         the first time on record. The 2015 global CO2 average neared this 
                         threshold, at 399.4 ppm. Additionally, one of the strongest El 
                         Nio events since at least 1950 developed in spring 2015 and 
                         continued to evolve through the year. The phenomenon was far 
                         reaching, impacting many regions across the globe and affecting 
                         most aspects of the climate system. Owing to the combination of El 
                         Nio and a long-term upward trend, Earth observed record warmth 
                         for the second consecutive year, with the 2015 annual global 
                         surface temperature surpassing the previous record by more than 
                         0.1C and exceeding the average for the mid- to late 19th 
                         centurycommonly considered representative of preindustrial 
                         conditionsby more than 1C for the first time. Above Earths 
                         surface, lower troposphere temperatures were near-record high. 
                         Across land surfaces, record to near-record warmth was reported 
                         across every inhabited continent. Twelve countries, including 
                         Russia and China, reported record high annual temperatures. In 
                         June, one of the most severe heat waves since 1980 affected 
                         Karachi, Pakistan, claiming over 1000 lives. On 27 October, 
                         Vredendal, South Africa, reached 48.4C, a new global high 
                         temperature record for this month. In the Arctic, the 2015 land 
                         surface temperature was 1.2C above the 19812010 average, tying 
                         2007 and 2011 for the highest annual temperature and representing 
                         a 2.8C increase since the record began in 1900. Increasing 
                         temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and 
                         thickness. On 25 February 2015, the lowest maximum sea ice extent 
                         in the 37-year satellite record was observed, 7% below the 
                         19812010 average. Mean sea surface temperatures across the Arctic 
                         Ocean during August in ice-free regions, representative of Arctic 
                         Ocean summer anomalies, ranged from ~0C to 8C above average. As 
                         a consequence of sea ice retreat and warming oceans, vast walrus 
                         herds in the Pacific Arctic are hauling out on land rather than on 
                         sea ice, raising concern about the energetics of females and young 
                         animals. Increasing temperatures in the Barents Sea are linked to 
                         a community-wide shift in fish populations: boreal communities are 
                         now farther north, and long-standing Arctic species have been 
                         almost pushed out of the area. Above average sea surface 
                         temperatures are not confined to the Arctic. Sea surface 
                         temperature for 2015 was record high at the global scale; however, 
                         the North Atlantic southeast of Greenland remained colder than 
                         average and colder than 2014. Global annual ocean heat content and 
                         mean sea level also reached new record highs. The Greenland Ice 
                         Sheet, with the capacity to contribute ~7 m to sea level rise, 
                         experienced melting over more than 50% of its surface for the 
                         first time since the record melt of 2012. Other aspects of the 
                         cryosphere were remarkable. Alpine glacier retreat continued, and 
                         preliminary data indicate that 2015 is the 36th consecutive year 
                         of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, 
                         late-spring snow cover extent continued its trend of decline, with 
                         June the second lowest in the 49-year satellite record. Below the 
                         surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at 
                         all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, 
                         increasing by up to 0.66C decade1 since 2000. In the Antarctic, 
                         surface pressure and temperatures were lower than the 19812010 
                         average for most of the year, consistent with the primarily 
                         positive southern annular mode, which saw a record high index 
                         value of +4.92 in February. Antarctic sea ice extent and area had 
                         large intra-annual variability, with a shift from record high 
                         levels in May to record low levels in August. Springtime ozone 
                         depletion resulted in one of the largest and most persistent 
                         Antarctic ozone holes observed since the 1990s. Closer to the 
                         equator, 101 named tropical storms were observed in 2015, well 
                         above the 19812010 average of 82. The eastern/central Pacific had 
                         26 named storms, the most since 1992. The western north Pacific 
                         and north and south Indian Ocean basins also saw high activity. 
                         Globally, eight tropical cyclones reached the SaffirSimpson 
                         Category 5 intensity level. Overlaying a general increase in the 
                         hydrologic cycle, the strong El Nio enhanced precipitation 
                         variability around the world. An above-normal rainy season led to 
                         major floods in Paraguay, Bolivia, and southern Brazil. In May, 
                         the United States recorded its all-time wettest month in its 
                         121-year national record. Denmark and Norway reported their second 
                         and third wettest year on record, respectively, but globally soil 
                         moisture was below average, terrestrial groundwater storage was 
                         the lowest in the 14-year record, and areas in severe drought rose 
                         from 8% in 2014 to 14% in 2015. Drought conditions prevailed 
                         across many Caribbean island nations, Colombia, Venezuela, and 
                         northeast Brazil for most of the year. Several South Pacific 
                         countries also experienced drought. Lack of rainfall across 
                         Ethiopia led to its worst drought in decades and affected millions 
                         of people, while prolonged drought in South Africa severely 
                         affected agricultural production. Indian summer monsoon rainfall 
                         was just 86% of average. Extremely dry conditions in Indonesia 
                         resulted in intense and widespread fires during AugustNovember 
                         that produced abundant carbonaceous aerosols, carbon monoxide, and 
                         ozone. Overall, emissions from tropical Asian biomass burning in 
                         2015 were almost three times the 200114 average.",
                  doi = "10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1",
                 issn = "0003-0007",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "aaron_state.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"
}


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