author = "Ferreira, Tatiane Morais and Forti, Maria Cristina and Freitas, 
                         Clarice Umbelino de and Nascimento, Felipe Parra and Junger, 
                         Washington Leite and Gouveia, Nelson",
          affiliation = "{Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)} and {Universidade 
                         de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)}",
                title = "Effects of particulate matter and its chemical constituents on 
                         elderly hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory 
              journal = "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public 
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "13",
               number = "10",
                pages = "947",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "Air pollution, Chemical constituents, Hospital admission, 
                         Particulate matter, Time series.",
             abstract = "Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with 
                         increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to 
                         analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, 
                         PM2.5-10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions) with 
                         hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases 
                         among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series 
                         study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized 
                         additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically 
                         significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5-10 
                         and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 
                         23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3) and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0) per 10 
                         \μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a 
                         significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the 
                         risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6) 
                         per 10 \μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO4 2-, NO3 
                         -, NH4 + and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to 
                         the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO4 2- in PM2.5-10 and K+ in 
                         PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions 
                         due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence 
                         indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in 
                         relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, 
                         PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of 
                         more selective pollution control policies.",
                  doi = "10.3390/ijerph13100947",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13100947",
                 issn = "1661-7827 and 1660-4601",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "ferreira_effects.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"