author = "Esmaili, Rebekah Bradley and Tian, Yudong and Vila, Daniel 
                         Alejandro and Kim, Kyu-Myong",
          affiliation = "{University of Maryland} and {University of Maryland} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {NASA 
                         Goddard Space Flight Center}",
                title = "A Lagrangian analysis of cold cloud clusters and their life cycles 
                         with satellite observations",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "121",
               number = "19",
                pages = "11723--11738",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "cloud cluster, evolution, Lagrangian, life cycle, tracking.",
             abstract = "Cloud movement and evolution signify the complex water and energy 
                         transport in the atmosphere-ocean-land system. Detecting, 
                         clustering, and tracking clouds as semicoherent clusters enable 
                         study of their evolution which can complement climate model 
                         simulations and enhance satellite retrieval algorithms, where 
                         there are gaps between overpasses. Using a cluster tracking 
                         algorithm, in this study we examine the trajectories, size, and 
                         brightness temperature of millions of cloud clusters over their 
                         lifespan, from infrared satellite observations at 30 min, 4 km 
                         resolution, for a period of 11 years. We found that the majority 
                         of cold clouds were both small and short lived and that their 
                         frequency and location are influenced by El Niņo. Also, this large 
                         sample of individually tracked clouds shows their horizontal size 
                         and temperature evolution. Long-lived clusters tended to achieve 
                         their temperature and size maturity milestones at different times, 
                         while these stages often occurred simultaneously in short-lived 
                         clusters. On average, clusters with this lag also exhibited a 
                         greater rainfall contribution than those where minimum temperature 
                         and maximum size stages occurred simultaneously. Furthermore, by 
                         examining the diurnal cycle of cluster development over Africa and 
                         the Indian subcontinent, we observed differences in the local 
                         timing of the maximum occurrence at different life cycle stages. 
                         Over land there was a strong diurnal peak in the afternoon, while 
                         over the ocean there was a semidiurnal peak composed of 
                         longer-lived clusters in the early morning hours and shorter-lived 
                         clusters in the afternoon. Building on regional specific work, 
                         this study provides a global long-term survey of object-based 
                         cloud characteristics.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016JD025653",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025653",
                 issn = "2169-8996 and 2169-897X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "esmaili_lagrangian.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "04 dez. 2020"