author = "Mallick, Kaniska and Trebs, Ivonne and Boegh, Eva and Giustarini, 
                         Laura and Schlerf, Martin and Drewry, Darren T. and Hoffmann, 
                         Lucien and Von Randow, Celso and Kruijt, Bart and Ara¨jo, 
                         Alessandro and Saleska, Scott and Ehleringer, James R. and 
                         Domingues, Tomas F. and Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud and 
                         Nobre, Antonio Donato and Moraes, Osvaldo Luiz Leal de and Hayek, 
                         Matthew and Munger, J. William and Wofsy, Steven C.",
          affiliation = "{Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST)} and 
                         {Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST)} and 
                         {Roskilde University} and {Luxembourg Institute of Science and 
                         Technology (LIST)} and {Luxembourg Institute of Science and 
                         Technology (LIST)} and {Jet Propulsion Laboratory} and {Luxembourg 
                         Institute of Science and Technology (LIST)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Luxembourg Institute 
                         of Science and Technology (LIST)} and {Empresa Brasileira de 
                         Pesquisa Agropecu{\'a}ria (EMBRAPA)} and {University of Arizona} 
                         and {University of Utah} and {Universidade de Sa{\~o} Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Centro 
                         Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais 
                         (CEMADEN)} and {Harvard University} and {Harvard University} and 
                         {Harvard University}",
                title = "Canopy-scale biophysical controls of transpiration and evaporation 
                         in the Amazon Basin",
              journal = "Hydrology and Earth System Sciences",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "20",
               number = "10",
                pages = "4237--4264",
                month = "Oct.",
             abstract = "Canopy and aerodynamic conductances (gC and gA) are two of the key 
                         land surface biophysical variables that control the land surface 
                         response of land surface schemes in climate models. Their 
                         representation is crucial for predicting transpiration 
                         (\λET) and evaporation (\λEE) flux components of the 
                         terrestrial latent heat flux (\λE), which has important 
                         implications for global climate change and water resource 
                         management. By physical integration of radiometric surface 
                         temperature (TR) into an integrated framework of the 
                         Penman-Monteith and Shuttleworth-Wallace models, we present a 
                         novel approach to directly quantify the canopy-scale biophysical 
                         controls on \λET and \λEE over multiple plant 
                         functional types (PFTs) in the Amazon Basin. Combining data from 
                         six LBA (Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) 
                         eddy covariance tower sites and a TR-driven physically based 
                         modeling approach, we identified the canopy-scale 
                         feedback-response mechanism between gC, \λET, and 
                         atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (DA), without using any 
                         leaf-scale empirical parameterizations for the modeling. The 
                         TR-based model shows minor biophysical control on \λET 
                         during the wet (rainy) seasons where \λET becomes 
                         predominantly radiation driven and net radiation (RN) determines 
                         75 to 80% of the variances of \λET. However, biophysical 
                         control on \λET is dramatically increased during the dry 
                         seasons, and particularly the 2005 drought year, explaining 50 to 
                         65% of the variances of \λET, and indicates \λET to be 
                         substantially soil moisture driven during the rainfall deficit 
                         phase. Despite substantial differences in gA between forests and 
                         pastures, very similar canopy-atmosphere {"}coupling{"} was found 
                         in these two biomes due to soil moisture-induced decrease in gC in 
                         the pasture. This revealed the pragmatic aspect of the TR-driven 
                         model behavior that exhibits a high sensitivity of gC to per unit 
                         change in wetness as opposed to gA that is marginally sensitive to 
                         surface wetness variability. Our results reveal the occurrence of 
                         a significant hysteresis between \λET and gC during the dry 
                         season for the pasture sites, which is attributed to relatively 
                         low soil water availability as compared to the rainforests, likely 
                         due to differences in rooting depth between the two systems. 
                         Evaporation was significantly influenced by gA for all the PFTs 
                         and across all wetness conditions. Our analytical framework 
                         logically captures the responses of gC and gA to changes in 
                         atmospheric radiation, DA, and surface radiometric temperature, 
                         and thus appears to be promising for the improvement of existing 
                         land-surface-atmosphere exchange parameterizations across a range 
                         of spatial scales.",
                  doi = "10.5194/hess-20-4237-2016",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-4237-2016",
                 issn = "1027-5606",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "mallick_canopy.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"