author = "Mendon{\c{c}}a, Rafael Rodrigues Souza de and Braga, Carlos 
                         Roberto and Echer, Ezequiel and Dal Lago, Alisson and Munakata, K. 
                         and Kuwabara, T. and Kozai, M. and Kato, C. and Silva, Marlos 
                         Rockenbach da and Schuch, Nelson Jorge and Al Jassar, H. K. and 
                         Sharma, M. M. and Tokumaru, M. and Duldig, M. L. and Humble, J. E. 
                         and Evenson, P. and Sabbah, I.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and Shinshu University, Matsumoto and {Chiba 
                         University} and {Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA)} 
                         and {Shinshu University} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas 
                         Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Kuwait University} and {Kuwait University} and 
                         {Nagoya University} and {University of Tasmania} and {University 
                         of Tasmania} and {University of Delaware} and {Japan Aerospace 
                         Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA)}",
                title = "The temperature effect in secondary cosmic rays (muons) observed 
                         at the ground: analysis of the global muon detector network data",
              journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "830",
               number = "2",
                month = "Oct.",
             keywords = "atmospheric effects, cosmic rays, solar-terrestrial relations, 
                         Sun: general.",
             abstract = "The analysis of cosmic ray intensity variation seen by muon 
                         detectors at Earth's surface can help us to understand 
                         astrophysical, solar, interplanetary and geomagnetic phenomena. 
                         However, before comparing cosmic ray intensity variations with 
                         extraterrestrial phenomena, it is necessary to take into account 
                         atmospheric effects such as the temperature effect. In this work, 
                         we analyzed this effect on the Global Muon Detector Network 
                         (GMDN), which is composed of four ground-based detectors, two in 
                         the northern hemisphere and two in the southern hemisphere. In 
                         general, we found a higher temperature influence on detectors 
                         located in the northern hemisphere. Besides that, we noticed that 
                         the seasonal temperature variation observed at the ground and at 
                         the altitude of maximum muon production are in antiphase for all 
                         GMDN locations (low-latitude regions). In this way, contrary to 
                         what is expected in high-latitude regions, the ground muon 
                         intensity decrease occurring during summertime would be related to 
                         both parts of the temperature effect (the negative and the 
                         positive). We analyzed several methods to describe the temperature 
                         effect on cosmic ray intensity. We found that the mass weighted 
                         method is the one that best reproduces the seasonal cosmic ray 
                         variation observed by the GMDN detectors and allows the highest 
                         correlation with long-term variation of the cosmic ray intensity 
                         seen by neutron monitors.",
                  doi = "10.3847/0004-637X/830/2/88",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/830/2/88",
                 issn = "0004-637X and 1538-4357",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"