author = "Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo and Almeida, Ronaldo and Carvalho, 
                         Dario P. and Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud and Camargo, 
                         Pl{\'{\i}}nio B. de and Dorneles, Paulo R. and Azeredo, Antonio 
                         and Bastos, Wanderley R. and Malm, Olaf and Torres, Jo{\~a}o P. 
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Amazonas (UFAM)} and {Universidade Federal do Rio de 
                         Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Universidade Federal de 
                         Rond{\^o}nia (UFRO)} and {Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro 
                         (UFRJ)} and {Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)}",
                title = "Mercury biomagnification and the trophic structure of the 
                         ichthyofauna from a remote lake in the Brazilian Amazon",
              journal = "Environmental Research",
                 year = "2016",
               volume = "151",
                pages = "286--296",
                month = "Nov.",
             keywords = "Fish, Mercury, Migration, River-floodplain system, Trophic 
                         magnification factor.",
             abstract = "The present study assesses mercury biomagnification and the 
                         trophic structure of the ichthyofauna from the Puruzinho Lake, 
                         Brazilian Amazon. In addition to mercury determination, the 
                         investigation comprised the calculation of Trophic Magnification 
                         Factor (TMF) and Trophic Magnification Slope (TMS), through the 
                         measurements of stable isotopes of carbon (\δ13C) and 
                         nitrogen (\δ15N) in fish samples. These assessments were 
                         executed in two different scenarios, i.e., considering (1) all 
                         fish species or (2) only the resident fish (excluding the 
                         migratory species). Bottom litter, superficial sediment and seston 
                         were the sources used for generating the trophic position (TP) 
                         data used in the calculation of the TMF. Samples from 84 fish were 
                         analysed, comprising 13 species, which were categorized into four 
                         trophic guilds: iliophagous, planktivorous, omnivorous and 
                         piscivorous fish. The \δ13C values pointed to the separation 
                         of the ichthyofauna into two groups. One group comprised 
                         iliophagous and planktivorous species, which are linked to the 
                         food chains of phytoplankton and detritus. The other group was 
                         composed by omnivorous and piscivorous fish, which are associated 
                         to the trophic webs of phytoplankton, bottom litter, detritus, 
                         periphyton, as well as to food chains of igap{\'o} 
                         (blackwater-flooded Amazonian forests). The TP values suggest that 
                         the ichthyofauna from the Puruzinho Lake is part of a short food 
                         web, with three well-characterized trophic levels. Mercury 
                         concentrations and \δ13C values point to multiple sources 
                         for Hg input and transfer. The similarity in Hg levels and TP 
                         values between piscivorous and planktivorous fish suggests a 
                         comparable efficiency for the transfer of this metal through 
                         pelagic and littoral food chains. Regarding the two abovementioned 
                         scenarios, i.e., considering (1) the entire ichthyofauna and (2) 
                         only the resident species, the TMF values were 5.25 and 4.49, as 
                         well as the TMS values were 0.21 and 0.19, respectively. These 
                         findings confirm that Hg biomagnifies through the food web of 
                         Puruzinho Lake ichthyofauna. The migratory species did not 
                         significantly change mercury biomagnification rate in Puruzinho 
                         Lake; however, they may play a relevant role in Hg transport. The 
                         biomagnification rate (TMS value) in Puruzinho Lake was higher 
                         than the average values for its latitude, being comparable to TMS 
                         values of temperate and polar systems (marine and freshwater 
                  doi = "10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.035",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.035",
                 issn = "0013-9351",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "azevedo_mercury.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"