author = "Maske, Bianca Buss and Gon{\c{c}}alves, Luis Gustavo 
                         Gon{\c{c}}alves de and Mattos, Jo{\~a}o Gerd Zell de",
          affiliation = "SIMEPAR and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Drought Identification through the Soil Moisture Estimated By 
                         Satellite and By AGCM-SSiB Model of CPTEC/INPE",
                 year = "2017",
         organization = "American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, 97.",
             abstract = "The drought definition can change with the nature of water deficit 
                         and applications. Normally four categories of drought are used: 
                         (1) Meteorological drought - when atmospheric conditions cause low 
                         precipitation; (2) Hidrological drought - deficit in surface and 
                         subsurface water; (3) Agricultural drought - deficit of water for 
                         plants; (4) Socioeconomic drought - when human activities are 
                         affected. The drought occurence depend of many elements: 
                         precipitation anomaly and/or temperature anomaly,anomaly of 
                         hidrological variables, terrestrial ecosystem condition and/or 
                         human activity. Therefore, drought monitoring need to consider the 
                         total environmental moisture, using all indicators that is 
                         possible. The indexes more common are: PDSI - Palmer Drought 
                         Severity Index, SWPI - Surface Water Supply Index, SPI - 
                         Standardized Precipitation Index and Soil Moisture Percentiles. 
                         Drought events on Brazil affect fundamental economy sectors and 
                         population supply, \ therefore directly affect 
                         agricultural production, energy production and water supply. 
                         According with Brazilian Atlas of Natural Disasters, around 48% of 
                         occorence of natural disaster are drought events, when the region 
                         most affected is Northeast followed by South and Southeast. Soil 
                         moisture is difficultly observated in large scale. To get around 
                         this problem is possible to use soil moisture estimated by 
                         satellite, mainly in microwave range of the electromagnetic 
                         spectrum. This estimate can detect soil moisture in the surface 
                         layer, around 5 cm. The satellite data product used in this work 
                         is development and provided by European Space Agency (ESA). The 
                         product is a combination of passive and active observations of 
                         many satellites. Using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) 
                         that is a index widely used in drought monitoring centers, were 
                         selected 3 cases for analisys: Jan/1998 to Dec/1999, Mar/2007 to 
                         Dec/2008 and Jan/2012 to May/2013. Then, it was calculeted soil 
                         moisture percentiles for satellite estimates and land surface SSiB 
                         model. The land surface SSiB model is coupled with atmospheric 
                         general circulation model of CPTEC/INPE, in the version T062L24 
                         that have around 200 km of horizontal resolution and simulation 
                         was in the period between Jan/1998 and Dec/2013. Considering that 
                         the drought occurence is when the percentile of soil moisture is 
                         less than 20, the results indicate that satellite estimates 
                         although represent only the surface layer can identify similar 
                         drought regions to SPI and find that have a time to response of 
                         precipitation occurence, increasing the drought of the 
                         hidrological viewpoint. Already land surface SSiB model have 
                         difficult to reproduce the events continuously and when the event 
                         was simulated correctly, the drought region generally indicated 
                         percentiles higher than is observed.",
  conference-location = "Seattle",
      conference-year = "21-26 jan.",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "19 abr. 2021"