author = "Shapiro, Brett and Adhikari, Rana X. and Aguiar, Odylio Denys de 
                         and Bonilla, Edgard and Fan, Danyang and Gan, Litawn and Gomez, 
                         Ian and Khandelwal, Sanditi and Lantz, Brian and MacDonald, Tim 
                         and Madden-Fong, Dakota",
          affiliation = "{Stanford University} and {b LIGO Laboratory} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Stanford University} 
                         and {Stanford University} and {Stanford University} and {Stanford 
                         University} and {Stanford University} and {Stanford University} 
                         and {Stanford University} and {Willamette University}",
                title = "Cryogenically cooled ultra low vibration silicon mirrors for 
                         gravitational wave observatories",
              journal = "Cryogenics",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "81",
                pages = "83--92",
             keywords = "Feedback control, Gravitational waves, Low vibration cryogenics.",
             abstract = "Interferometric gravitational wave observatories recently launched 
                         a new field of gravitational wave astronomy with the first 
                         detections of gravitational waves in 2015. The number and quality 
                         of these detections is limited in part by thermally induced 
                         vibrations in the mirrors, which show up as noise in these 
                         interferometers. One way to reduce this thermally induced noise is 
                         to use low temperature mirrors made of high purity 
                         single-crystalline silicon. However, these low temperatures must 
                         be achieved without increasing the mechanical vibration of the 
                         mirror surface or the vibration of any surface within close 
                         proximity to the mirrors. The vibration of either surface can 
                         impose a noise inducing phase shift on the light within the 
                         interferometer or physically push the mirror through oscillating 
                         radiation pressure. This paper proposes a system for the Laser 
                         Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) to achieve 
                         the dual goals of low temperature and low vibration to reduce the 
                         thermally induced noise in silicon mirrors. Experimental results 
                         are obtained at Stanford University to prove that these dual goals 
                         can be realized simultaneously.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.cryogenics.2016.12.004",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cryogenics.2016.12.004",
                 issn = "0011-2275",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "shapiro_cryogenically.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"