author = "Trabaquini, Kleber and Galv{\~a}o, L{\^e}nio Soares and 
                         Formaggio, Antonio Roberto and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira 
                         e Cruz de",
          affiliation = "Epagri and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Soil, land use time, and sustainable intensification of 
                         agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado region",
              journal = "Environmental Monitoring and Assessment",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "189",
               number = "2",
                pages = "70",
                month = "Feb.",
             keywords = "Agriculture, Cerrado, Food security, Land use change, Remote 
                         sensing, Soil nutrients.",
             abstract = "The Brazilian Cerrado area is in rapid decline because of the 
                         expansion of modern agriculture. In this study, we used extensive 
                         field data and a 30-year chronosequence of Landsat images 
                         (19802010) to assess the effects of time since conversion of 
                         Cerrado into agriculture upon soil chemical attributes and 
                         soybean/corn yield in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed. We 
                         determined the rates of vegetation conversion into agriculture, 
                         the agricultural land use time since conversion, and the temporal 
                         changes in topsoil (020 cm soil depth) and subsurface (2040 cm) 
                         chemical attributes of the soils. In addition, we investigated 
                         possible associations between fertilization/over-fertilization and 
                         land use history detected from the satellites. The results showed 
                         that 61.8% of the native vegetation in the Alto do Rio Verde 
                         watershed was already converted into agriculture with 31% of soils 
                         being used in agriculture for more than 30 years. While other 
                         fertilizers in cultivated soils (e.g., Ca+2, Mg+2, and P) have 
                         been compensated over time by soil management practices to keep 
                         crop yield high, large reductions in Corg (38%) and Ntot (29%) 
                         were observed in old cultivated areas. Furthermore, soybean and 
                         cornfields having more than 10 years of farming presented higher 
                         values of P and Mg+2 than the ideal levels necessary for plant 
                         development. Therefore, increased risks of over-fertilization of 
                         the soils and environmental contamination with these 
                         macronutrients were associated with soybean and cornfields having 
                         more than 10 years of farming, especially those with more than 30 
                         years of agricultural land use.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10661-017-5787-8",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-5787-8",
                 issn = "0167-6369",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "trabaquini_soil.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"