author = "K{\"o}hn, Christoph and Diniz, Gabriel Sousa and Harakeh, Muhsin 
          affiliation = "{Technical University of Denmark} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {University of Groningen}",
                title = "Production mechanisms of leptons, photons, and hadrons and their 
                         possible feedback close to lightning leaders",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "122",
               number = "2",
                pages = "1365--1383",
                month = "Jan.",
             keywords = "cross-section analysis, feedback model, Monte Carlo simulation, 
                         neutron beam, positron beam, terrestrial gamma-ray flash.",
             abstract = "It has been discussed that lightning flashes emit high-energy 
                         electrons, positrons, photons, and neutrons with single energies 
                         of several tens of MeV. In the first part of this paper we study 
                         the absorption of neutron beams in the atmosphere. We initiate 
                         neutron beams of initial energies of 350 keV, 10 MeV, and 20 MeV 
                         at source altitudes of 4 km and 16 km upward and downward and see 
                         that in all these cases neutrons reach ground altitudes and that 
                         the cross-section areas extend to several km2. We estimate that 
                         for terrestrial gamma-ray flashes approximately between 10 and 
                         2000 neutrons per ms and m2 are possibly detectable at ground, at 
                         6 km, or at 500 km altitude. In the second part of the paper we 
                         discuss a feedback model involving the generation and motion of 
                         electrons, positrons, neutrons, protons, and photons close to the 
                         vicinity of lightning leaders. In contrast to other feedback 
                         models, we do not consider large-scale thundercloud fields but 
                         enhanced fields of lightning leaders. We launch different photon 
                         and electron beams upward at 4 km altitude. We present the spatial 
                         and energy distribution of leptons, hadrons, and photons after 
                         different times and see that leptons, hadrons, and photons with 
                         energies of at least 40 MeV are produced. Because of their high 
                         rest mass hadrons are measurable on a longer time scale than 
                         leptons and photons. The feedback mechanism together with the 
                         field enhancement by lightning leaders yields particle energies 
                         even above 40 MeV measurable at satellite altitudes.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016JD025445",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025445",
                 issn = "2169-8996 and 2169-897X",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "kohn_production.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "24 jan. 2021"