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@Article{MirandaNPMPSSHLM:2017:EfCoCo,
               author = "Miranda, Miranda and Noyma, Nat{\'a}lia and Pacheco, Felipe 
                         Siqueira and Magalh{\~a}es, Leonardo de and Pinto, Ernani and 
                         Santos, Suzan and Soares, Maria Fernanda A. and Huszar, Vera L. 
                         and L{\"u}rling, Miquel and Marinho, Marcelo M.",
          affiliation = "{Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal do Rio de 
                         Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and 
                         {Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Universidade 
                         Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF)} and {Universidade Federal do Rio 
                         de Janeiro (UFRJ)} and {Wageningen University} and {Universidade 
                         Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)}",
                title = "The efficiency of combined coagulant and ballast to remove harmful 
                         cyanobacterial blooms in a tropical shallow system",
              journal = "Harmful Algae",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "65",
                pages = "27--39",
             keywords = "Eutrophication control Cyanobacteria mitigation Microcystis 
                         Cylindrospermopsis Chitosan.",
             abstract = "We tested the hypothesis that a combination of coagulant and 
                         ballast could be efficient for removal of positively buoyant 
                         harmful cyanobacteria in shallow tropical waterbodies, and will 
                         not promote the release of cyanotoxins. This laboratory study 
                         examined the efficacy of coagulants [polyaluminium chloride (PAC) 
                         and chitosan (made of shrimp shells)] alone, and combined with 
                         ballast (lanthanum modified bentonite, red soil or gravel) to 
                         remove the natural populations of cyanobacteria collected from a 
                         shallow eutrophic urban reservoir with alternating blooms of 
                         Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis. PAC combined with ballast was 
                         effective in settling blooms dominated by Microcystis or 
                         Cylindrospermopsis. Contrary to our expectation, chitosan combined 
                         with ballast was only effective in settling 
                         Cylindrospermopsis-dominated blooms at low pH, whereas at pH 8 no 
                         effective flocculation and settling could be evoked. Chitosan also 
                         had a detrimental effect on Cylindrospermopsis causing the release 
                         of saxitoxins. In contrast, no detrimental effect on Microcystis 
                         was observed and all coagulant-ballast treatments were effective 
                         in not only settling the Microcystis dominated bloom, but also 
                         lowering dissolved microcystin concentrations. Our data show that 
                         the best procedure for biomass reduction also depends on the 
                         dominant species.",
                  doi = "10.1016/j.hal.2017.04.007",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2017.04.007",
                 issn = "1568-9883",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "29 nov. 2020"
}


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