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@InCollection{MarengoTomaNobr:2016:ClChWa,
               author = "Marengo, Jos{\'e} Antonio and Tomasella, Javier and Nobre, Carlos 
                         Afonto",
                title = "Climate change and water resources",
            booktitle = "Waters of Brazil: strategic analysis",
            publisher = "Springer",
                 year = "2016",
               editor = "Bicudo, Carlos Eduardo de Mattos and Tundisi, Jos{\'e} Galizia 
                         and Scheuenstuhl, Marcos Cortes{\~a}o Barnsley",
                pages = "171--186",
              address = "Switzerland",
             keywords = "Agriculture, governance, irrigation, public policies, scarcity, 
                         water resources.",
             abstract = "This report presents a general vision of the availability of water 
                         in Brazil within the context of climate variability and change. 
                         Despite Brazil having great water availability, its distribution 
                         among the regions is very uneven. The current situation, in terms 
                         of scarcity, is mainly due to inadequate planning of land and 
                         water use associated to economic growth: as an example, the 
                         Southeast area of Brazil, which has great water availability, is 
                         affected by lack of water due to uncontrolled urbanization growth. 
                         Water availability in Brazil is directly related to the climate, 
                         especially during the months of summer. Delays in the start of 
                         rainy seasons can affect agriculture and the hydroelectric power 
                         generation; and the occurrence of severe fl oods and droughts have 
                         caused great impacts in the economy and to the population. This 
                         can be seen, for example, in the case of the drought in Amazonia 
                         in 2005 and the fl oods of 2009 in Amazonia. Brazil is vulnerable 
                         to these climatic anomalies and will be vulnerable to the changes 
                         projected on rainfall patterns and on extremes weather patterns 
                         due to climatic change. Changes in patterns and in precipitation 
                         regimes could also affect river fl ows; current studies indicate 
                         that the most affected river will be the S{\~a}o Francisco River, 
                         where the reduction in rainfall will result in a drastic decrease 
                         of discharge and consequently will severely impact irrigation and 
                         the hydroelectric power generation. Without a doubt, the 
                         uncertainties of the future projected scenarios always need to be 
                         taken into consideration. Actions focused on adaptation and 
                         mitigation is urgent, as are monitoring plans for water resources 
                         in order to assess climatic risks. Comprehensive research on 
                         climatic change and its impacts on water resources is extremely 
                         necessary. Water resources management should also consider the 
                         climate change projections and uncertainties in the implementation 
                         of water policies and regulations.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                  doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-41372-3",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41372-3",
                 isbn = "978-3-319-41371-6",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "WATERSOFBRAZIL-final-21-09-2016-4.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"
}


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