author = "Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. and Mackay, Murray and Stockwell, Jason D. 
                         and Thiery, Wim and Grossart, Hans-Peter and Augusto-Silva, 
                         P{\'e}tala Bianchi and Baulch, Helen M. and Eyto, Elvira de and 
                         Hejzlar, Josef and Kangur, K{\"u}lli and Kirillin, Georgiy and 
                         Pierson, Don C. and Rusak, James A. and Sadro, Steven and Woolway, 
                         R. Iestyn",
          affiliation = "{Uppsala University} and {Environment and Climate Change Canada} 
                         and {University of Vermont} and {Institute for Atmospheric and 
                         Climate Science} and {Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and 
                         Inland Fisheries} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {University of Saskatchewan} and {Innovation 
                         Boulevard} and {Institute of Hydrobiology} and {Estonian 
                         University of Life Sciences} and {Leibniz Institute of Freshwater 
                         Ecology and Inland Fisheries} and {Uppsala University} and 
                         {Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change} and {University 
                         of California} and {University of Reading}",
                title = "Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature 
                         difference between air and inland waters with global warming",
              journal = "Scientific Reports",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "7",
               number = "43890",
             abstract = "Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological 
                         studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on 
                         applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a 
                         citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high 
                         school students to examine the temperature difference between 
                         surface water and the overlying air (T-w-T-a) as a proxy for 
                         sensible heat flux (Q(H)). If Q(H) is directed upward, 
                         corresponding to positive T-w-T-a, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 
                         emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased 
                         greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students 
                         found mostly negative T-w-T-a across small ponds, lakes, 
                         streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward Q(H)), with 
                         T-w-T-a becoming increasingly negative with increasing T-a. 
                         Further examination of T-w-T-a using high-frequency temperature 
                         data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that T-w-T-a is 
                         linearly related to T-a. Using the longest available 
                         high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we 
                         found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative T-w-T-a with 
                         increasing annual mean T-a since 1989. From these results, we can 
                         expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in 
                         increasingly negative T-w-T-a, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 
                         transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.",
                  doi = "10.1038/srep43890",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep43890",
                 issn = "2045-2322",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "18 abr. 2021"