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@PhDThesis{OvandoLeyton:2017:UnFlPr,
               author = "Ovando Leyton, Alex",
                title = "Understanding flooding processes of large wetlands of the bolivian 
                         amazon through in situ observation, remote sensing and numerical 
                         modeling",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2017",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2017-05-04",
             keywords = "flood mapping, satellite altimetry, hydrology, wetlands, 
                         mapeamento inunda{\c{c}}{\~o}es, altimetria satelital, 
                         hidrologia.",
             abstract = "The Amazonian wetlands of Bolivia, known as the Llanos de Moxos, 
                         are believed to play a crucial role in regulating the upper 
                         Madeira hydrological cycle, the most important southern tributary 
                         of the Amazon River. In addition to its rich natural diversity, 
                         the Llanos were the setting for many complex pre-Columbian 
                         societies. Because the area is vast and sparsely populated, the 
                         hydrological functioning of the wetlands is poorly known. In this 
                         thesis we show the feasibility of using multi-temporal flood 
                         mapping, based on optical (MODIS M*D09A1) and satellite altimetry 
                         (ENVISAT RA-2 and SARAL Altika altimeters) to characterize and 
                         monitor flood dynamics and to optimize floodplain simulations 
                         within a hydrological model (MHD-INPE model). Initially we 
                         analyzed the hydrometeorological configurations that led to the 
                         major floods of 2007, 2008 and 2014 in the upper Madeira Basin; 
                         Then, with the inclusion of altimetric information, which provided 
                         a vertical component for the two-dimensional flood maps, we 
                         analyzed the flood dynamics for the whole 2001-2014 period, 
                         including both extension and water stage variations that allowed 
                         to have initial surface water storage estimations. Finally, we 
                         critically analyzed how numerical modeling of the wetlands can be 
                         improved using additional remote sensing techniques. Our results 
                         showed that large floods are the result of the superimposition of 
                         flood waves from major sub-basins of the region and the strong 
                         influence of the occurrence of intense rainfall over saturated 
                         areas. We had identified relevant features of the flood regime, 
                         identifying three groups with particular characteristics in 
                         function of its connectivity and dependence to the Andes and 
                         piedmonts or to local processes and classified the hydraulic 
                         function of the wetlands based on remote sensed imagery. Finally, 
                         we demonstrate that remote sensing information is of major 
                         importance for improving floodplain simulations using hydrological 
                         models. However, there are still clear limitations in the existent 
                         remote sensed products for achieving seamless predictions of the 
                         hydrological behavior of the Llanos under changing climate. 
                         RESUMO: As extensas terras {\'u}midas da Amazonia Boliviana, 
                         conhecidas como Llanos de Moxos, desempenham um papel crucial na 
                         regula{\c{c}}{\~a}o do ciclo hidrol{\'o}gico do Alto Madeira, o 
                         mais importante tribut{\'a}rio do sudoeste da Bacia 
                         Amaz{\^o}nica. Al{\'e}m de sua riqueza e diversidade natural, os 
                         Llanos de Moxos foram o cen{\'a}rio para o desenvolvimento de 
                         complexas sociedades pr{\'e}-colombinas. Devido a {\'a}rea ser 
                         extensa e pouco povoada, o funcionamento hidrol{\'o}gico destas 
                         terras {\'u}midas {\'e} pouco conhecido. Nesta tese mostrou-se a 
                         viabilidade do uso de mapeamento multitemporal baseado em imagens 
                         {\'o}pticas (MODIS M*D09A1) e altimetria por sat{\'e}lite 
                         (ENVISAT RA-2 and SARAL AltiKa) para caracterizar e monitorar 
                         din{\^a}micas de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o e otimizar 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es de plan{\'{\i}}cies de 
                         inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o dentro de um modelo hidrol{\'o}gico (o 
                         modelo MHD-INPE). Inicialmente analisamos as 
                         configura{\c{c}}{\~o}es hidrometeorol{\'o}gicas que levaram aos 
                         grandes eventos de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos anos 2007, 2008 e 
                         2014 no Alto Madeira. Em seguida, com a inclus{\~a}o de 
                         informa{\c{c}}{\~a}o altim{\'e}trica, que forneceu o componente 
                         vertical aos mapas de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o bidimensionais, 
                         analisamos as din{\^a}micas de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o para o 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo 2001-2014, incluindo extens{\~a}o e 
                         varia{\c{c}}{\~o}es de profundidade das inunda{\c{c}}{\~o}es, 
                         o que permitiu estimar de armazenamento de {\'a}gua superficial 
                         nas plan{\'{\i}}cies. Finalmente analisamos criticamente como a 
                         simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o num{\'e}rica das plan{\'{\i}}cies pode 
                         ser otimizada com informa{\c{c}}{\~a}o de sensoriamento remoto. 
                         Identificamos, baseados em informa{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         sensoriamento remoto e altimetria, tr{\^e}s zonas diferenciadas 
                         em fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o de sua conectividade e depend{\^e}ncia aos 
                         Andes ou a processos locais. Finalmente, demonstramos que a 
                         informa{\c{c}}{\~a}o de sensoriamento remoto {\'e} de grande 
                         import{\^a}ncia para a melhoria de simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es de 
                         plan{\'{\i}}cies de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o. No entanto, ainda 
                         existem limita{\c{c}}{\~o}es claras nos produtos de 
                         sensoriamento remoto para alcan{\c{c}}ar previs{\~o}es exatas do 
                         comportamento hidrol{\'o}gico dos Llanos de Moxos.",
            committee = "Cuartas Pineda, Luz Adriana (presidente) and Tomasella, Javier 
                         (orientador) and Randow, Celso von (orientador) and Martinez, 
                         Jean-Michel and Rudorff, Conrado de Moraes",
         englishtitle = "Compreendendo os processos de inunda{\c{c}}{\~a}o de grandes 
                         planicies de inundacao da amaz{\^o}nia boliviana por 
                         observa{\c{c}}{\~a}o situ, sensoreamento remoto e modelagem 
                         num{\'e}rica.",
             language = "en",
                pages = "175",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3NNFSM5",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3NNFSM5",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "01 dez. 2020"
}


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