author = "Deusdar{\'a}, Karinne Reis Leal and Forti, Maria Cristina and 
                         Borma, Laura de Simone and Menezes, R. S. C. and Lima, J. R. S. 
                         and Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Federal de 
                         Pernambuco (UFPE)} and {Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco 
                         (UFRPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Rainwater chemistry and bulk atmospheric deposition in a tropical 
                         semiarid ecosystem: the Brazilian Caatinga",
              journal = "Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "74",
               number = "1",
                pages = "71--85",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "Brazil, Chemical composition, Nitrogen deposition, Rainfall, 
                         Source contribution, South America.",
             abstract = "We assessed the rainwater chemistry, the potential sources of its 
                         main inorganic components and bulk atmospheric deposition in a 
                         rural tropical semiarid region in the Brazilian Caatinga. Rainfall 
                         samples were collected during two wet seasons, one during an 
                         extremely dry year (2012) and one during a year with normal 
                         rainfall (2013). According to measurements of the main inorganic 
                         ions in the rainwater (H+, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, 
                         Cl\−, NO3 \−, and SO4 2\−), no differences 
                         were observed in the total ionic charge between the two 
                         investigated wet seasons. However, Ca2+, K+, NH4 + and NO3 
                         \− were significant higher in the wetter year (p < 0.05) 
                         which was attributed to anthropogenic activities, such as organic 
                         fertilizer applications. The total ionic contents of the rainwater 
                         suggested a dominant marine contribution, accounting for 76 % and 
                         58 % of the rainwater in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The sum of 
                         the non-sea-salt fractions of Cl\−, SO4 2\−, Mg2+, 
                         Ca2+ and K+ were 19 % and 33 % in 2012 and 2013, and the 
                         nitrogenous compounds accounted for 2.8 % and 6.0 % of the total 
                         ionic contents in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The ionic ratios 
                         suggested that Mg2+ was probably the main neutralizing constituent 
                         of rainwater acidity, followed by Ca2+. We observed a low bulk 
                         atmospheric deposition of all major rainwater ions during both wet 
                         seasons. Regarding nitrogen deposition, we estimated slightly 
                         lower annual inputs than previous global estimates. Our findings 
                         contribute to the understanding of rainfall chemistry in 
                         northeastern Brazil by providing baseline information for a 
                         previously unstudied tropical semiarid ecosystem.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s10874-016-9341-9",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10874-016-9341-9",
                 issn = "0167-7764",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "deusdara_rainwater.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "02 dez. 2020"