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@MastersThesis{Machado:2017:AnFeDo,
               author = "Machado, Carolyne Bueno",
                title = "An{\'a}lise fenol{\'o}gica do dossel da floresta nacional do 
                         Tapaj{\'o}s utilizando dados orbitais do sensor modis e 
                         hiperespectrais locais",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2017",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2017-04-28",
             keywords = "Floresta Amaz{\^o}nica, s{\'e}ries temporais, MAIAC, 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca, Amazon Forest, time-series, MAIAC, dry 
                         season.",
             abstract = "A varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o sazonal da capacidade fotossint{\'e}tica 
                         de extensas florestas tropicais, como a Amaz{\^o}nica, pode 
                         influenciar no condicionamento clim{\'a}tico em escala global. 
                         Diversos estudos v{\^e}m apontando ganho no desenvolvimento da 
                         Floresta Amaz{\^o}nica durante a esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca, 
                         induzido pela maior radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar dispon{\'{\i}}vel 
                         neste per{\'{\i}}odo. Este comportamento foi observado com 
                         diferentes dados e n{\'{\i}}veis de aquisi{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         incluindo medi{\c{c}}{\~o}es em campo e imagens do sensor MODIS. 
                         Por{\'e}m, ele confronta o ciclo de crescimento da 
                         vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o simulado em modelos, por n{\~a}o considerar 
                         a disponibilidade de {\'a}gua como fator limitante. Outros 
                         trabalhos indicam artefatos nas imagens MODIS, devido {\`a} 
                         sazonalidade do {\^a}ngulo zenital solar (SZA), o que gera 
                         menores fra{\c{c}}{\~o}es sombreadas nos doss{\'e}is durante a 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca, resultando em ganho na reflect{\^a}ncia 
                         detectada pelo sensor. Dentro deste contexto, este trabalho 
                         objetivou avaliar o comportamento sazonal da Floresta Nacional do 
                         Tapaj{\'o}s, em resposta {\`a} disponibilidade de {\'a}gua e 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o. A resposta do sensor MODIS-MAIAC tamb{\'e}m 
                         foi contraposta a um dado local hiperespectral (HVIS), posicionado 
                         na torre do km 67. A fenologia foi avaliada com {\'{\i}}ndices 
                         espectrais e com as fra{\c{c}}{\~o}es: vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         verde (GV), sombra e vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o n{\~a}o 
                         fotossinteticamente ativa (NPV). A esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca foi 
                         relativa aos meses de d{\'e}ficit h{\'{\i}}drico (<100 mm), 
                         sendo que a metodologia e os dados utilizados buscaram minimizar a 
                         influ{\^e}ncia da geometria Sol-sensor. Foi realizada uma 
                         an{\'a}lise espacial e a an{\'a}lise de s{\'e}ries temporais 
                         com o pacote BFAST, para verificar padr{\~o}es interanuais e 
                         intra-anuais de correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o entre as vari{\'a}veis 
                         fenol{\'o}gicas e ambientais. A umidade do solo mostrou defasagem 
                         com a precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, indicando que a floresta pode ter 
                         acesso {\`a} {\'a}gua ap{\'o}s o t{\'e}rmino do 
                         per{\'{\i}}odo chuvoso. Cerca de 40 \% da {\'a}rea de floresta 
                         na FLONA teve \$\delta\$ EVI positivo durante a 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca e este percentual aumenta ao considerar a 
                         reflect{\^a}ncia no infravermelho pr{\'o}ximo e a 
                         fra{\c{c}}{\~a}o GV, ultrapassando 70 \%. No entanto, o 
                         {\'{\i}}ndice PRI indica menor efici{\^e}ncia 
                         fotossint{\'e}tica no per{\'{\i}}odo seco, confirmada pelo 
                         aumento do NPV, da reflect{\^a}ncia no vermelho e no verde. A 
                         fenologia da floresta teve forte correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o negativa 
                         com a umidade do solo, por{\'e}m, correla{\c{c}}{\~o}es fracas 
                         com a precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o e radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o. A resposta 
                         da floresta {\`a}s vari{\'a}veis ambientais foi 
                         significativamente diferente dos demais usos da terra, indicando 
                         maior resist{\^e}ncia em per{\'{\i}}odos de estresse 
                         h{\'{\i}}drico. Os padr{\~o}es de greening ocorreram em 
                         {\'a}reas de floresta mais densa e n{\~a}o aumentam em latitudes 
                         maiores, n{\~a}o indicando depend{\^e}ncia da 
                         varia{\c{c}}{\~a}o do SZA. Ao n{\'{\i}}vel local h{\'a} 
                         evid{\^e}ncias de mudan{\c{c}}as na estrutura de copas 
                         individuais, perda e ganho, dependendo da esp{\'e}cie. O dado 
                         di{\'a}rio MODIS-MAIAC n{\~a}o teve predomin{\^a}ncia de 
                         correla{\c{c}}{\~a}o significativa com as imagens di{\'a}rias 
                         HVIS, mas, de agosto para setembro de 2012, ambos apresentaram 
                         ganho na estrutura dos doss{\'e}is ao n{\'{\i}}vel da imagem. 
                         54 \% das evid{\^e}ncias indicaram greening durante a 
                         esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca, de 2004 a 2014 ao n{\'{\i}}vel 
                         orbital, mas os resultados n{\~a}o convergem em todas as 
                         an{\'a}lises. Portanto, diferentes processos ocorrem 
                         simultaneamente na floresta, durante a esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca, e 
                         os sensores respondem a esta mistura de processos. A hip{\'o}tese 
                         {\'e} que h{\'a} contribui{\c{c}}{\~a}o relativa de 
                         indiv{\'{\i}}duos com mudan{\c{c}}a demogr{\'a}fica das folhas 
                         e de indiv{\'{\i}}duos sofrendo perda da capacidade 
                         fotossint{\'e}tica durante a esta{\c{c}}{\~a}o seca. ABSTRACT: 
                         The seasonal variation of the photosynthetic capacity of extensive 
                         tropical forests, such as Amazon Forest, can influence in climatic 
                         regulation on global scale. Several papers have indicated a 
                         radiation-induced green-up of the Amazon Forest during the dry 
                         season. This behavior was observed with different data and 
                         acquisition levels, including field measurements and MODIS sensor 
                         images. However, it confronts the vegetation growth cycle in 
                         models, since it does not consider availability of water as a 
                         limiting factor. Other studies indicate artifacts in the MODIS 
                         images, due to solar zenith angle (SZA) seasonality, which 
                         generates less shaded fractions at the canopies during the dry 
                         season, resulting in increase of reflectance detected by the 
                         sensor. Within this context, this research aimed at evaluating the 
                         seasonal behavior of Tapaj{\'o}s National Forest, in response to 
                         the water and radiation availability. The response of the 
                         MODIS-MAIAC sensor was also opposed to a hyperspectral local data 
                         (HVIS), located in the km 67 tower. Phenology was evaluated with 
                         spectral indexes and with the fractions: green vegetation (GV), 
                         shade and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV). The dry season was 
                         related to the months of water deficit (<100 mm), and the 
                         methodology and data used intended to minimize the influence of 
                         Sun-sensor geometry. A spatial analysis was performed and a 
                         time-series analysis with BFAST was applied, verifying interannual 
                         and intra-annual patterns of correlation between phenological and 
                         environmental variables. Soil moisture showed a lag with rainfall, 
                         indicating that the forest may have access to water after the 
                         rainy season ends. About 40\% of the forest area in the 
                         Tapaj{\'o}s Forest had positive \$\delta\$ EVI during the dry 
                         season and this percentage increases when considering the near 
                         infrared reflectance and the GV fraction, exceeding 70\%. 
                         However, the PRI index indicates lower photosynthetic efficiency 
                         in the dry period, confirmed by NPV, red and green reflectance 
                         increase. The forest phenology had a strong negative correlation 
                         with soil moisture, but weak correlations with precipitation and 
                         radiation. The forest response to the environmental variables was 
                         significantly different from the other land uses, indicating 
                         greater resistance in periods of water stress. Greening patterns 
                         occurred in denser forest areas and do not increase in higher 
                         latitudes, indicating no dependence on SZA variation. At the local 
                         level there is evidence of changes in the structure of individual 
                         crowns, loss and gain, depending on the species. The daily 
                         MODIS-MAIAC data had no significant correlation with the daily 
                         HVIS images, but from August to September 2012 both had an 
                         increase in the structure of the canopies at landscape level. 
                         54\% of the evidences indicated greening during dry season, from 
                         2004 to 2014 at orbital level, but the results do not converge in 
                         all analyzes. Therefore, different processes occur simultaneously 
                         in the forest during the dry season, and the sensors respond to 
                         this mixture of processes. The hypothesis is that there is a 
                         relative contribution of individuals with demographic change of 
                         the leaves and individuals suffering loss of photosynthetic 
                         capacity during the dry season.",
            committee = "Galv{\~a}o, L{\^e}nio Soares (presidente) and Arag{\~a}o, Luiz 
                         Eduardo Oliveira e Cruz de (orientador) and Shimabukuro, Yosio 
                         Edemir and Wagner, Fabien Hubert and Brando, Paulo Monteiro",
         englishtitle = "Phenological analysis of the Tapaj{\'o}s national forest canopy 
                         using modis orbital data and and local hyperespectric sensor 
                         data",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "163",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3NNL76S",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3NNL76S",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "23 nov. 2020"
}


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