author = "Alvim, D{\'e}bora Souza and Gatti, Luciana Vanni and Corr{\^e}a, 
                         Sergio Machado and Chiquetto, J{\'u}lio Barboza and Rossatti, 
                         Carlos de Souza and Pretto, Ang{\'e}lica and Santos, Maria Helena 
                         dos and Yamazaki, Am{\'e}lia and Orlando, Jo{\~a}o Paulo and 
                         Santos, Guaciara Macedo",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Universidade Estadual 
                         do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo 
                         (USP)} and {Universidade de S{\~a}o Paulo (USP)} and {Instituto 
                         de Pesquisas em Energia Nuclear (IPEN)} and {Instituto de 
                         Pesquisas em Energia Nuclear (IPEN)} and {Instituto de Pesquisas 
                         em Energia Nuclear (IPEN)} and {Instituto de Pesquisas em Energia 
                         Nuclear (IPEN)} and {University of California}",
                title = "Main ozone-forming VOCs in the city of Sao Paulo: observations, 
                         modelling and impacts",
              journal = "Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "10",
               number = "4",
                pages = "421--435",
                month = "May",
             keywords = "Atmospheric chemistry, Incremental reactivity, Ozone-forming 
                         potential, Volatile organic compounds.",
             abstract = "High-ozone concentrations currently represent the main air 
                         pollution problem in the city of S{\~a}o Paulo, Brazil. To 
                         elucidate the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which act as 
                         ozone precursors, samples from air quality monitoring stations 
                         were evaluated. Thirty-five samples were collected in 
                         AugustSeptember of 2006 and 43 in JulyAugust of 2008, when the 
                         consumption of ethanol was about 50 % of the total fuel used in 
                         the S{\~a}o Paulo Metropolitan Area. Samples were collected using 
                         electropolished stainless canisters. Chemical analyses were 
                         performed on pre-concentrated samples followed by gas 
                         chromatograph with flame ionization and mass spectrometry 
                         detection. The incremental reactivity scale was used to rank the 
                         ozone precursors using the Ozone Isopleth Package for Research 
                         (OZIPR) trajectory model coupled with chemical mechanism Statewide 
                         Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC). Sixty-nine species of VOCs 
                         were quantified, and the ten main ozone precursors identified in 
                         2008 were as follows: formaldehyde (42.8 %), acetaldehyde (13.9 
                         %), ethene (12.2 %), propene (5.1 %), 1-methylcyclopentene (3.0 
                         %), p-xylene (2.4 %), 1-butene (2.1 %), trans-2-pentene (1.9 %), 
                         2-methyl 2-butene (1.7 %) and trans-2-butene (1.6 %). Volatile 
                         organic compound mass distribution showed that in 2008 alkanes 
                         represented 46 % of the total VOCs, alkenes 27 %, aromatics 14 %, 
                         alkadienes 1 % and aldehydes 12 %.",
                  doi = "10.1007/s11869-016-0429-9",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11869-016-0429-9",
                 issn = "1873-9318",
             language = "en",
        urlaccessdate = "24 nov. 2020"