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@MastersThesis{Gonçalves:2017:EsBaRa,
               author = "Gon{\c{c}}alves, Layrson de Jesus Menezes",
                title = "Estudo do balan{\c{c}}o radiativo e energ{\'e}tico da atmosfera 
                         em fun{\c{c}}{\~a}o da emiss{\~a}o natural e antr{\'o}pica de 
                         CO2 utilizando o Modelo Atmosf{\'e}rico Global Brasileiro (BAM)",
               school = "Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)",
                 year = "2017",
              address = "S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos",
                month = "2017-06-02",
             keywords = "emiss{\~a}o de CO2, energ{\'e}tica da atmosfera, modelagem 
                         global, CO2 emission, atmospheric energetic, global modeling.",
             abstract = "Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo principal de estudar o impacto devido 
                         {\`a}s emiss{\~o}es de di{\'o}xido de carbono (CO2) e do tipo 
                         de modelo de vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o na estrutura din{\^a}mica e 
                         termodin{\^a}mica e, consequentemente, nos balan{\c{c}}os de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o e energ{\'e}tico da atmosfera. Para a 
                         realiza{\c{c}}{\~a}o do trabalho, primeiramente foi criado e 
                         implementado no Modelo Atmosf{\'e}rico Global Brasileiro (BAM) um 
                         banco de dados de emiss{\~a}o de CO\$_{2]\$ de origem natural e 
                         antr{\'o}pico. Assim, foram realizadas 8 simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         clim{\'a}ticas (1 controle e 7 experimentos) com 
                         resolu{\c{c}}{\~a}o horizontal de aproximadamente 200 km e 18 
                         n{\'{\i}}veis na vertical no per{\'{\i}}odo de 1980 a 2010 (30 
                         anos) que diferem em termos de concentra{\c{c}}{\~a}o de CO2 
                         (aumento homog{\^e}neo de 4 vezes, somente emiss{\~a}o natural e 
                         emiss{\~a}o natural e antr{\'o}pico) e tipo de 
                         vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o (est{\'a}tica e din{\^a}mica). Para 
                         verificar a consist{\^e}ncia do experimento controle, algumas 
                         vari{\'a}veis (componentes do balan{\c{c}}o de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o, 
                         circula{\c{c}}{\~a}o em 200 hPa e temperatura a 2 metros) foram 
                         comparadas com dados de refer{\^e}ncia de rean{\'a}lises e 
                         sat{\'e}lites. Na segunda etapa do trabalho, foi verificado o 
                         impacto dos cen{\'a}rios de CO\$_{2}\$ e a 
                         utiliza{\c{c}}{\~a}o do modelo de vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         din{\^a}mica nas vari{\'a}veis citadas acima atrav{\'e}s da 
                         avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos experimentos em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         {\`a} simula{\c{c}}{\~a}o controle. Por fim, os campos 
                         meteorol{\'o}gicos foram utilizados para calcular os termos de 
                         energ{\'e}tica utilizando o Ciclo de Energia de Lorenz. De forma 
                         geral, o experimento controle simulou as principais 
                         caracter{\'{\i}}sticas clim{\'a}ticas globais, mostrando 
                         consist{\^e}ncia quando comparado aos dados de refer{\^e}ncia, 
                         por{\'e}m com algumas defici{\^e}ncias. Em termos de 
                         radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o, o modelo mostrou que a atmosfera global 
                         {\'e} mais transparente {\`a} radia{\c{c}}{\~a}o solar do que 
                         os dados observacionais de sat{\'e}lite, e que as regi{\~o}es 
                         polares apresentam baixo albedo da superf{\'{\i}}cie. Os 
                         experimentos com aumento homog{\^e}neo (4xCO\$_{2}\$), 
                         indicaram a redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o da energia potencial do estado 
                         b{\'a}sico principalmente na regi{\~a}o tropical e no 
                         hemisf{\'e}rio Norte. Isto se deve, principalmente, {\`a} 
                         redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o da atividade convectiva nestas regi{\~o}es e 
                         da precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Adicionalmente, verificou que devido 
                         ao efeito estufa, a temperatura do ar em 2 metros aumentou 
                         globalmente em torno de 0.5 K, sendo que nos continentes o aumento 
                         atingiu valores de +4.0 K. Considerando vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         est{\'a}tica, os experimentos com emiss{\~a}o natural e 
                         antr{\'o}pico tiveram impactos pequenos comparados com os 
                         resultados do experimento controle. Por{\'e}m, observa-se que a 
                         emiss{\~a}o antr{\'o}pico tende a reduzir a 
                         precipita{\c{c}}{\~a}o em algumas regi{\~o}es pr{\'o}ximas ao 
                         Equador, e diminuir a energia potencial dispon{\'{\i}}vel do 
                         estado b{\'a}sico. O emprego da vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         din{\^a}mica tem maior impacto nas simula{\c{c}}{\~o}es do 
                         modelo, do que o uso apenas da emiss{\~a}o natural e 
                         antr{\'o}pico. Isto se deve ao efeito da vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         nos fluxos de umidade e calor. ABSTRACT: This research has the 
                         main objective of studying the impact due to the emissions of 
                         carbon dioxide (CO\$_{2}\$) and the type of vegetation model in 
                         the dynamic and thermodynamic structure, and consequently in the 
                         radiation and energetic balances of the atmosphere. To reach the 
                         results obtained, a database of CO\$_{2}\$ emission data of 
                         natural and anthropogenic origin was first created and implemented 
                         in the Brazilian Global Atmospheric Model (BAM). Thus, 8 climate 
                         simulations (1 control and 7 experiments) with horizontal 
                         resolution of approximately 200 km and 18 vertical levels in the 
                         period from 1980 to 2010 (30 years) that differ in terms of 
                         CO\$_{2}\$ concentration (homogeneous increase of 4 times, only 
                         natural emission and more anthropogenic natural emission) and type 
                         of vegetation (static and dynamic). In order to verify the 
                         consistency of the control experiment, some variables (components 
                         of the radiation balance, precipitation, circulation at 200 hPa 
                         and temperature at 2 meters) were compared with reference data of 
                         reanalysis and satellites. In the second stage of the study, was 
                         verified the impact of the CO2 scenarios and the use of the 
                         dynamic vegetation model in the variables mentioned above through 
                         the evaluation of the experiments in relation to the control 
                         simulation. Finally, the meteorological fields were used to 
                         calculate the energy terms using the Lorenz Energy Cycle. In 
                         general, the control experiment simulated the main global climatic 
                         characteristics, showing consistency when compared to reference 
                         data, but with some deficiencies, in terms of radiation, the model 
                         showed that the global atmosphere is more transparent to solar 
                         radiation than the satellite observational data, and that the 
                         polar regions have low surface albedo. The experiments with 
                         homogeneous increase (4xCO2) indicated the reduction of the 
                         available potential energy in basic state mainly in the tropical 
                         region and in the Northern hemisphere. This is mainly due to the 
                         reduction of convective activity in these regions. In addition, it 
                         was verified that due to the greenhouse effect, the temperature of 
                         the air in 2 meters increased globally around 0.5 K, in the 
                         continents the increase reached values of +4.0 K. Considering 
                         static vegetation, the experiments with natural and anthropogenic 
                         emission had low impacts compared to the results of the control 
                         experiment. However, it is observed that the anthropogenic 
                         emission tends to reduce the precipitation in some regions near 
                         the Equator, and reduce the available potential energy in basic 
                         state. The use of dynamic vegetation has a greater impact on model 
                         simulations than the use of natural and anthropogenic emission 
                         alone. This is due to the effect of vegetation on the flows of 
                         moisture and heat.",
            committee = "Bonati, Jose Paulo (presidente) and Coelho, Simone Marilene 
                         Sievert da Costa (orientadora) and Kubota, Paulo Yosio 
                         (orientador) and Reyes Fernandez, Julio Pablo and Rocha, Edson 
                         Jos{\'e} Paulino da",
         englishtitle = "Study of the radiative and energetic balance of the atmosphere in 
                         the function of the natural and anthropic CO2 emission using the 
                         Brazilian Global Atmospheric Model (BAM)",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "180",
                  ibi = "8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3NSSMJE",
                  url = "http://urlib.net/rep/8JMKD3MGP3W34P/3NSSMJE",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "25 nov. 2020"
}


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