author = "Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali and Nogueira, P. A. B. and Souza, Jonas 
                         Rodrigues de and Batista, Inez Staciarini and Dutra, Severino Luiz 
                         Guimar{\~a}es and Sobral, Jos{\'e} Humberto Andrade",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Instituto 
                         Federal de Educa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, Ci{\^e}ncia e Tecnologia de 
                         S{\~a}o Paulo and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais 
                         (INPE)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and {Instituto 
                         Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Equatorial electrojet responses to intense solar flares under 
                         geomagnetic disturbance time electric fields",
              journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "122",
               number = "3",
                pages = "3570--3585",
                month = "Mar.",
             keywords = "solar flare, overshielding electric field, equatorial electrojet, 
                         EEJ westward current, disturbance dynamo electric field, sunrise 
             abstract = "Large enhancement in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) current can 
                         occur due to sudden increase in the E layer density arising from 
                         solar flare associated ionizing radiations, as also from 
                         background electric fields modified by magnetospheric disturbances 
                         when present before or during a solar flare. We investigate the 
                         EEJ responses at widely separated longitudes during two X-class 
                         flares that occurred at different activity phases surrounding the 
                         magnetic super storm sequences of 28-29 October 2003. During the 
                         28 October flare we observed intense reverse electrojet under 
                         strong westward electric field in the sunrise sector over 
                         Jicamarca. Sources of westward disturbance electric fields driving 
                         large EEJ current are identified for the first time. Model 
                         calculations on the E layer density, with and without flare, and 
                         comparison of the results between Jicamarca and Sao Luis suggested 
                         enhanced westward electric field due to the flare occurring close 
                         to sunrise (over Jicamarca). During the flare on 29 October, which 
                         occurred during a rapid AE recovery, a strong overshielding 
                         electric field of westward polarity over Jicamarca delayed an 
                         expected EEJ eastward growth due to flare-induced ionization 
                         enhancement in the afternoon. This EEJ response yielded a measure 
                         of the overshielding decay time determined by the storm time 
                         Region 2 field-aligned current. This paper will present a detailed 
                         analysis of the EEJ responses during the two flares, including a 
                         quantitative evaluation of the flare-induced electron density 
                         enhancements and identification of electric field sources that 
                         played dominant roles in the large westward EEJ at the sunrise 
                         sector over Jicamarca.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016JA023667",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016JA023667",
                 issn = "2169-9402",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "abdu_equatorial.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "26 nov. 2020"