author = "Moraes, Alison de Oliveira and Costa, Emanoel and Abdu, 
                         Mangalathayil Ali and Rodrigues, Fabiano S. and Paula, Eurico 
                         Rodrigues de and Oliveira, Kelias and Perrella, Waldecir 
          affiliation = "{Instituto de Aeron{\'a}utica e Espa{\c{c}}o (IAE)} and 
                         {Pontif{\'{\i}}cia Universidade Cat{\'o}lica do Rio de Janeiro 
                         (PUC-RIO)} and {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} 
                         and {University of Texas at Dallas} and {Instituto Nacional de 
                         Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)} and Instituto Federal de 
                         Educa{\c{c}}{\~a}o, Ci{\^e}ncia e Tecnologia de Goi{\'a}s and 
                         {Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico da Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)}",
                title = "The variability of low-latitude ionospheric amplitude and phase 
                         scintillation detected by a triple-frequency GPS receiver",
              journal = "Radio Science",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "52",
               number = "4",
                pages = "439--460",
                month = "Apr.",
             keywords = "ionospheric scintillation, phase measurements, statistical 
             abstract = "Ionospheric scintillation is a manifestation of space weather 
                         effects that seriously affect the performance and availability of 
                         space-based navigation and communication systems. This paper 
                         presents results from an investigation on the characteristics of 
                         the phase and amplitude scintillation of Global Positioning System 
                         signals at the L1, L2C, and L5 frequencies. Field data obtained by 
                         a scintillation monitor installed in S{\~a}o Jos{\'e} dos Campos 
                         (23.1S, 45.8W; dip latitude 17.3S, declination 21.4W), Brazil, 
                         a station located near the southern crest of the equatorial 
                         ionization anomaly, were used for this purpose. The analyzed data 
                         were collected during 150 nights from November 2014 to March 2015, 
                         an epoch of moderate solar activity close to the recent solar 
                         maximum. Only measurements corresponding to an elevation mask of 
                         30 and values above standard threshold levels were used in the 
                         analysis. Outstanding characteristics of amplitude and phase 
                         scintillation are analyzed and compared in this study. The 
                         different characteristics of the scintillation focused in this 
                         study include (1) the statistics of their occurrences at the three 
                         frequencies; (2) the local time distributions of the amplitude and 
                         phase scintillation at different intensity levels; (3) 
                         azimuth-elevation (spatial) distributions at different levels of 
                         the standard deviation of phase fluctuations; (4) scintillation 
                         enhancement and loss of phase lock conditions due to field-aligned 
                         (longitudinal) propagation; (5) the relationship between amplitude 
                         and phase scintillation parameters for the L1, L2C, and L5 
                         frequencies; and (6) the frequency dependence of the amplitude and 
                         phase scintillations. Important results on these different 
                         characteristics are presented and discussed, and some outstanding 
                         problems for future investigations are suggested.",
                  doi = "10.1002/2016RS006165",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2016RS006165",
                 issn = "0048-6604",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "moraes_variability.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "28 nov. 2020"