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@Article{XavierSousMart:2017:AiQuPu,
               author = "Xavier, Jos{\'e} Carlos de Moura and Sousa J{\'u}nior, Wilson 
                         Cabral de and Martins, Maria Paulete Pereira",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and 
                         {Instituto Tecnol{\'o}gico de Aeron{\'a}utica (ITA)} and 
                         {Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
                title = "Air quality public policies and their implications for densely 
                         populated urban areas in Brazil",
              journal = "Sustentabilidade em Debate",
                 year = "2017",
               volume = "8",
               number = "1",
                pages = "13--27",
                month = "abr.",
             keywords = "Air Quality. Vehicle Emissions. Air Pollutant. Public Policy. 
                         Brazilian Cities, Qualidade do Ar. Emiss{\~o}es Veiculares. 
                         Poluente Atmosf{\'e}rico. Pol{\'{\i}}tica P{\'u}blica. Cidades 
                         Brasileiras.",
             abstract = "Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and 
                         energy consumption and an increase in the population density in 
                         urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being 
                         questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the 
                         Brazilian and Regional (S{\~a}o Paulo state) public policies of 
                         air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them 
                         to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the 
                         national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 
                         1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional 
                         level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically 
                         since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of S{\~a}o Paulo city, the 
                         largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more 
                         than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although 
                         the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached 
                         (10g.m-3), there was a decrease on the annual average in 
                         2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the 
                         limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The 
                         analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission 
                         will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine 
                         policies supported by current laws, government and private sector 
                         agreements and the community engagement. RESUMO: Em um 
                         cen{\'a}rio de crescimento da renda da popula{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         brasileira, de aumento no consumo de energia e de adensamento das 
                         {\'a}reas urbanas, questiona-se sobre a qualidade do ar nas 
                         maiores cidades brasileiras. Na busca por resposta, este trabalho 
                         analisou as pol{\'{\i}}ticas p{\'u}blicas nacionais e regional 
                         (estado de S{\~a}o Paulo) afetas {\`a} qualidade do ar 
                         implantadas a partir de 1981 e as contrap{\^o}s aos indicadores 
                         oficiais dessa qualidade. As emiss{\~o}es totais de di{\'o}xido 
                         de carbono triplicaram entre 1980 e 2012, seguindo o crescimento 
                         da frota veicular nacional que passou de 9,3 milh{\~o}es para 
                         48,8 milh{\~o}es, respectivamente. No {\^a}mbito regional, MP2.5 
                         {\'e} monitorado sistematicamente desde 1999 na Regi{\~a}o 
                         Metropolitana de S{\~a}o Paulo (a maior cidade brasileira), com 
                         19,7 milh{\~o}es de habitantes e mais de 7 milh{\~o}es de 
                         ve{\'{\i}}culos predominantemente movidos a 
                         combust{\'{\i}}veis de origem f{\'o}ssil. Observou-se 
                         diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o da m{\'e}dia anual do per{\'{\i}}odo 
                         2008-2015 em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o ao per{\'{\i}}odo 2001-2007, 
                         embora essa m{\'e}dia ainda esteja acima do padr{\~a}o estadual 
                         a ser alcan{\c{c}}ado (10g.m-3). Essa diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o se 
                         deve em parte aos limites de emiss{\~a}o estabelecidos para 
                         ve{\'{\i}}culos novos pelos programas federais. A an{\'a}lise 
                         indicou que estrat{\'e}gias que envolvem a aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         de normativas legais, notadamente aquelas apoiadas pelas 
                         pol{\'{\i}}ticas j{\'a} existentes, por acordos que envolvam 
                         governo e iniciativa privada e pela participa{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         sociedade t{\^e}m chance maior de levar {\`a} 
                         redu{\c{c}}{\~a}o da emiss{\~a}o de poluentes 
                         atmosf{\'e}ricos.",
                  doi = "10.18472/SustDeb.v8n1.2017.18846",
                  url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.18472/SustDeb.v8n1.2017.18846",
                 issn = "2177-7675",
             language = "en",
           targetfile = "xavier_air.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "27 nov. 2020"
}


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